Anti-gravity, Astro-biology, astro-physics, Chemistry, cosmology, Dark Matter, DNA, Futurism, Genetics, GUT-CP, hydrides, hydrino, HydrinoDollars, HydrinoEconomy, Molecular modelling, New elements, particle physics, Philosophy, physics, technology

Israel is going to Moon!… Israeli STEM education (Science, Engineering, Technology & Mathematics)… for kindergarteners!

“Never know… … the first man to step foot on the Moon might just be Jewish!” ;D

“The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe, contemplating the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvellous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to understand a little of this mystery every day.” – Albert Einstein

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“STEM? What in the UK?… most kindergarten and nursery teachers in the UK are fucking illiterate mate!… … most UK high school teachers are suicidal”

“Some of you can see where I’m going with this can’t you!” 😀

Science Minister:

‘National pride’ in Israel’s first lunar landing mission

Akunis visits plant building 1st Israeli spacecraft to moon; ‘I’ve no doubt joy of all Israeli citizens will be felt when ship lifts off.’

Science Minister Ophir Akunis, Science Ministry Director-General Ran Bar, and Israel Aerospace Agency Director Avi Blassberger visited the plant where the first Israeli spacecraft to reach the moon is being built.

The project has so far been funded primarily by donations from private individuals, led by philanthropist Maurice Kahn and Dr. Miri and Sheldon Adelson.

Recently, however, the Science Ministry announced government support for the SpaceIL project in the amount of up to NIS 7.5 million.

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Science Minister Ophir Akunis, Science Ministry Director-General Ran Bar, and Israel Aerospace Agency Director Avi Blassberger visited the plant where the first Israeli spacecraft to reach the moon is being built.

The project has so far been funded primarily by donations from private individuals, led by philanthropist Maurice Kahn and Dr. Miri and Sheldon Adelson.

Recently, however, the Science Ministry announced government support for the SpaceIL project in the amount of up to NIS 7.5 million.

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Here’s (almost) everything you need to know about Israel’s Moon lander

An Israeli spacecraft is gearing up for a 2019 Moon mission that features unique partnerships, investigation of the Moon’s origin, and closure for an 11-year-old contest designed to spur commercial lunar activities.

SpaceIL, a privately funded Israeli non-profit, designed and built a four-legged lander that will touch down in Mare Serenitatis, one of the dark, lunar basins visible to the naked eye from Earth. The craft, which weighs less than 200 kilograms without fuel, will send home high-definition pictures and video before hopping to a new landing spot half a kilometer away. If successful, the mission will make Israel the fourth country to soft-land on the Moon, following Russia, the United States, and China.

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The overall purpose of the mission, SpaceIL says, is to inspire more Israelis to pursue STEM careers. Three engineers formed the non-profit in 2011 to compete for the Google Lunar X-Prize, a $30 million contest encouraging privately funded groups to land on the Moon. The first team to land, travel 500 meters and transmit imagery would have earned $20 million. A second-place team would have earned $5 million, and another $5 million was up for grabs through stretch goals like visiting an old Apollo site and contributing to STEM diversity.

Google withdrew the cash prizes in April 2018 when no group was able to meet the contest deadline, which had already been extended from 2017. A few teams, including SpaceIL, pushed on, and despite a brush with bankruptcy at the end of 2017, SpaceIL announced they would be ready to fly at the end of 2018. The launch has since been delayed until the “beginning of 2019,” SpaceIL representatives said in response to emailed questions.

The lander, which is in the process of being named through an online contest, will leave Earth aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Florida. SpaceIL is one of at least three customers with spacecraft aboard the flight. The primary payload is an Indonesian telecommunications satellite called PSN-6, built by sat-building company SSL. Another undisclosed rider rumored to be a U.S. government satellite.

Rideshare missions are common, but this one is unique because one spacecraft is headed to the Moon while two others will trek to geosynchronous orbit, a region almost 36,000 kilometers above Earth. There, satellites have one-day orbits to match Earth’s rotation, enabling them to linger over the same ground spot.

All three spacecraft will detach from the Falcon 9 into a geosynchronous transfer orbit with a high point, or apogee, of 60,000 kilometers. The SpaceIL lander will orbit Earth three times, raising its orbit until being captured by the Moon’s gravity. The process will take more than two months, and at the Moon, the lander will make two orbits before landing.

In another mission twist, Spaceflight, the company that arranged the rideshare aspect of the Falcon 9 launch, says the undisclosed satellite will remain attached to PSN-6 while both satellites head to geosynchronous orbit. Ryan Olcott, a Spaceflight mission manager, called this arrangement “groundbreaking.”

“We’re really thrilled to develop this relationship with SSL,” Olcott said. “It is a great enabler for a broad category of rideshares that would be much harder or impossible to perform with a single ring below a primary spacecraft.” The company is already offering geosynchronous ridealongs as a dedicated service for future launches.

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SpaceIL lander site
NASA / Goddard / Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter / Jason Davis / The Planetary Society

SpaceIL lander site
SpaceIL’s lander will touch down in Mare Serenitatis, the “Sea of Serenity,” shown as the larger circle. The specific landing site is in the inner circle.

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Another big partner joined the mission in October: NASA announced it would provide SpaceIL with observations from a Moon-orbiting spacecraft, a laser retroreflector for the lander, and communications support during the mission. The partnership was made under the agency’s new Lunar Discovery and Exploration Program, or LDEP, which is part of the Trump administration’s plans to return humans to the surface of the Moon.

As the SpaceIL lander descends to Mare Serenitatis, its engine will stir up the lunar soil, and NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, will use its science instruments to look for mercury and hydrogen in the dust plume. LRO has been surveying the Moon from lunar orbit since 2009.

But don’t expect any dramatic pictures of the spacecraft landing like the ones NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has captured over the years. Stephen Cole, a NASA official at the agency’s office of communications in Washington, D.C., said it’s “very unlikely” LRO will take visible light images of the landing. LRO will, however, take images afterwards to see how the lander’s descent exhaust altered the landing site.

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center is giving SpaceIL a laser retroreflector array, or LRA, to install on the spacecraft — essentially an array of mirrors that reflect lasers in order to measure distance (LightSail 2 and other Earth-orbiting spacecraft carry similar arrays). There are no immediate plans to use the retroreflector; LRO has a laser altimeter, but the team actually avoids aiming it at retroreflectors left behind by the Apollo astronauts because the return signal could damage the spacecraft. Earth-bound laser stations use the Apollo retroreflectors to measure the distance to the Moon, but the SpaceIL equivalent will be too small for that.

Instead, NASA is providing the retroreflector with the future in mind. Over time, a network of similar reflectors could be built and used for navigation by spacecraft in orbit.

“Each lander that carries an LRA, we can build up a navigational system on the Moon, providing more information to orbiting satellites and future landers, both robotic and human,” said Cole.

NASA is also giving SpaceIL time on the agency’s Deep Space Network, which communicates with beyond-Earth missions via satellite dishes in California, Spain, and Australia. In return, NASA will get a copy of all the data collected by the mission’s single science instrument: a magnetometer to measure “magnetic anomalies” in Mare Serenitatis. The Soviet Union’s Luna 21 mission, which landed in the same region in 1973 and deployed the Lunakhod 2 rover, detected magnetism there.

Photo by: Eliran Avital
SpaceIL lander
SpaceIL

SpaceIL lander
The SpaceIL lander in mid-2018.

Understanding the Moon’s magnetism is key to learning about its origin. While Earth has a global magnetic field caused by the continued churning of liquid metal near the core, the Moon does not. But 3.6 billion years ago, the Moon had a magnetic field just as strong as Earth’s. When new-forming rocks solidify from their melted states, they lock in traces of the ambient magnetic field at the time. By looking at the ages of different regions and the strength of the magnetic field embedded in rocks, scientists can piece together the Moon’s history. The magnetometer data will be archived in NASA’s Planetary Data System.

SpaceIL’s mission control will be located at Israel Aerospace Industries, the country’s government-owned aerospace corporation located southeast of Tel Aviv. The mission, which now has a reported price tag of $95 million, is bankrolled by billionaire investors that include Israeli entrepreneur Morris Kahn, and U.S. business magnate Sheldon Adelson.

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SpaceIL

Education Impact

OUR VISION

SpaceIL aspires to advance the discourse on science and engineering in Israel and to acquaint the young generation with the exciting opportunities in their future, which STEM studies make possible. Through the anticipation and preparation for the historic landing on the moon of an Israeli spacecraft, our non-profit organization motivates students of all ages and sectors – both male and female – to broaden their knowledge in science, technology, engineering and mathematics; and fosters entrepreneurship, innovation, excellence and leadership. Contemplating ‘the day after’, SpaceIL strives to enhance the quality of education, to close educational gaps in the Israeli society and to provide the graduates of the educational system with the tools they will need in order to thrive in the 21st century.

The SpaceIL moon landing project serves as a source of inspiration and as fertile ground for a long-term impact on the next generation of scientists and engineers in Israel.

THE EDUCATIONAL RATIONALE:

THE FUTURE IS UNKNOWN; THE REQUIRED SKILLS ARE CLEAR

One cannot know with certainty what future the professions will be, but many believe that 80% of them will require knowledge and skills in mathematics and science. However, at present, we, as a society are not prepared for this increased demand for scientific literacy. Even today, Israel is facing a serious shortage of engineers. The number of scientists and engineers in the Israel Defense Forces, the academia and the private sector fall short of the number required to uphold the State of Israel’s technological advantage and to preserve its status as ‘the startup nation’.

From Early Learning to Workforce
The STEM Pipeline in Israel

General Overview and Rationale
According to the World Economic Forum, the world is living its Fourth industrial revolution, which is the combination of cyber-physical systems, Big Data, the Internet of Things, and the Internet of Systems. Alongside great benefits, concerns emerge such as the fact that many jobs and disciplines will disappear and automation, computers and machines will replace workers across many industries, and the gaps between the skills learned and the skills needed is growing. Excellence and literacy in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) are considered essential tools for students to measure up to the challenges of the 21st century.
This exponential change will require skills that weren’t given enough weight, if any, in teaching programs at all levels, whether at school, university or work: excellence, innovation, creativity, entrepreneurship, world experience, critical thinking, etc. In recent years key stakeholders and experts in Israel have been warning about growing shortages:
• In skilled students in the education system, as well as in the higher education system that develops STEM tracks;
• In a skilled workforce capable of fulfilling technology-based positions in the military and in industry in the next 10 years; and
• The limited scientific literacy among the general public.
STEM education has thus recently become the focus of an intensive public discussion and debate that can be gauged from increasing government attention and cross-sector initiatives.
An inter-ministerial committee headed by Israel National Economic Council outlined unequivocally the direct link between science and technology literacy at a young age, quality of high school diplomas, the number of students studying relevant fields in higher education, and the flow of a skilled workforce in knowledge-intensive industries, as well as minimizing the socio-economic gaps.

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Future Scientists – The Centre For the Gifted sand Talented
Odyssey -Academic Studies Programmes in the Sciences

General
The Odyssey Program was inspired and initiated by the late President of the State of Israel, Mr. Shimon Peres. The program was developed to nurture a unique scientific-technological group – a new generation of inventors and scientists in Israel who possess both the ability to lead and a sense of social responsibility.

The program includes academic studies in the sciences, alongside work in research laboratories. The participants acquire knowledge, skills and experience coping with complex problems, while accumulating academic credits. The program is implemented in parallel with formal studies and during vacation, the students participate in workshops and full-day intensive seminars.

The program operates through the Maimonides Fund’s Future Scientists Center, as a joint initiative with the Ministry of Education’s Department for Gifted and Talented Students and the National Cyber Bureau within the Prime Minister’s Office. Other partners in the program include the Rashi Foundation, the Jerusalem Foundation, Check Point Software Technologies Ltd., SanDisk, Mellanox Technologies, and Keter

Education for Science and Math – STEM Framework

About the Course Background
“The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe, contemplating the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to understand a little of this mystery every day.” – Albert Einstein In a world that is becoming increasingly complex, where global problems require multidisciplinary solutions, where citizens and communities need to be creative and analytical in the way they deal with problem solving, our education processes need to be measured not only by what we know, but also by what we can do with that knowledge and even by our ability to develop and combine this knowledge. It is more important than ever for our children and youth to be equipped with the knowledge and skills connected to the 21st century reality, where change is becoming the only constant. In this context, all learners should be prepared to think deeply and critically, to get the knowhow and the skills for creative and analytic thinking so that they have the chance to become the innovators, educators, researchers, and leaders who can solve the most pressing challenges facing our world, both today and tomorrow. These are the types of skills that students learn through Science Education using STEM as a curriculum based on the idea of educating students in four specific disciplines — science, technology, engineering and mathematics — in an interdisciplinary and applied approach. Rather than teach the four disciplines as separate and discrete subjects, STEM integrates them into a cohesive learning paradigm based on real-world applications. While it is almost impossible to list every discipline, some common areas include aerospace, astrophysics, astronomy, biochemistry, biomechanics, chemistry, biomimicry , mathematical biology, nanotechnology, neurobiology, nuclear physics, physics, and robotics, among many, many others. As evidenced by the vast variety of disciplines, it is clear that the Science Education fields affect virtually every component of our everyday lives. This new science education approach is providing the educational system with more tools for quality education, integrating knowledge and methods from different disciplines, using a real synthesis of approaches and principles that should be especially prominent: Interdisciplinary, creativity and Relevance to reality. -The STEAM approach is connecting the dots and providing education with another tool for quality education; integrating knowledge and methods from different disciplines, using a real synthesis of approaches. -In a world where technology has been integrated into our daily lives and in which global problems require multidisciplinary solutions, citizens and communities need to be creative and analytical in the way they deal with problem solving. This educational approach provides the tools for this kind
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of approach. We must give creativity the importance it deserves in order to succeed in a world where change is becoming the only constant. -What separates this approach from traditional science and math education is the blended learning environment and the manner of showing students how the scientific method should be applied to everyday life. It teaches students a different way of thinking and focuses on the real world applications of problem solving. Nowadays we add to STEM an A, for arts. The addition of the arts to the original STEM framework is important as it includes practices such as modelling, developing scientific explanations and engaging in critique, which are often underemphasized in the context of math and science education. The course designed by The Aharon Ofri MASHAV International Educational Training Center is aimed at directors of education departments in education Ministries, Principals and supervisors of primary and secondary schools; Educational staff at schools Training institutions, whose responsibilities involve the allocation of resources and development of educational policies. It is based on the vast experience the Israeli education system has acquired over the years in working towards an educational environment contributive to sustainability and globalization.

STEM Education in Israel: A Case Study

In this chapter, we review the STEM education system in Israel, including historical overview, current reforms and contemporary trends and emphasis. We also describe the research process of the risk management process presented in this Brief, including the Research Methodology (Sect. 3.2.1), Research Participants (Sect. 3.2.2) and Research Tools (Sect. 3.2.3), and the Research Process (Sect. 3.2.4).

Orit Hazzan: Research topics in

Policy of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Education

My recent academic – research and practice – work focuses on Policy of STEM Education, including: • Cross-sector collaboration: upscale processes, collective impact, and RPP • Human resources: predictions and professional development • Strategic analysis: SWOT analysis, risk management, and change management
These topics are addressed in my academic work on K-12, academia and industry levels. Within the context of these topics, STEM education processes on the national level (beyond a specific program or initiate) are examined, in order to make a significant change in the Israeli eco-system to sustain Israel’s economic growth and development My work is largely based on my academic background in mathematics, computer science, education, and management and my acquaintance with the Israeli educational system in general and computer science education in particular, with the academia, and with the industry in Israel and its hi-tech sector. In what follows, several examples of my recent research works, projects and activities on these topics are presented.

IATI’s STEM Education Projects

In recent years we have seen a decrease in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education in Israel. Fewer students are completing 5 units of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science.

IATI co-leads the project, as our mission is to promote and cultivate the advanced technology industries in Israel and consequently we see great value in promoting STEM education. In order to continue being a Start-Up nation we must strengthen STEM teaching in Israel, and encourage high school students to acquire STEM knowledge.

To bridge this problem IATI is co-leading events to promote STEM Education in Israel, with Government ministries, Educational NGOs and with the High-Tech Companies.,

To find out more about how you can join us for these national efforts, please contact roni@iati,co,il.
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STEM in Israel: The Educational Foundation for ‘Start-Up Nation’

 

Israel launches STEM program for kindergartners

Why did global aerospace giant Lockheed Martin send its chief executive to a Beersheva kindergarten?

Because Lockheed Martin is a major partner in Israel’s first science-technology early education program, thus far serving 100 children. The idea is that it’s never too soon to inculcate the basics of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) to better prepare the next generation for the job market.

“The future growth of Israel’s economy will require a constant supply of highly trained, highly capable technical talent, which is why advancing STEM education is a critical focus for Lockheed Martin,” said Marillyn Hewson, Lockheed Martin chairwoman, president and CEO.

Lockheed, a large U.S. defense contractor based in Washington D.C. with a campus in Sunnyvale, is among several major multinationals that have established offices in Beersheva’s new Gav-Yam Negev Advanced Technologies Park (ATP), primarily housing companies involved in developing cyber technologies.

In 2014, Lockheed signed a memorandum of understanding with the Israeli government to help advance cyber-education in the Jewish state. Lockheed has since sponsored programs and conferences aimed at helping educators more effectively teach STEM curriculum.

Last year, Lockheed began collaborating with Israel’s Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science and the Rashi Foundation to promote STEM programs for students in kindergarten through high schools.

The new early childhood curriculum was designed to provide 300 hours of science study per year in a stimulating learning environment that allows students to experiment and to experience and develop skills through hands-on creative activities in astronomy, physics, chemistry and robotics.

Over the next three years, classrooms taking part in the project will be equipped with computers, Lego construction kits, robotics experiments and space-related content to encourage a passion for STEM, according to the Rashi Foundation, which leads national projects that bridge educational and social gaps in Israel. The joint initiative is part of the MadaKids program that aims to cultivate future scientists in Israel.

The project is operated by Beit Yatziv, an organization that runs science education programs for some 40,000 elementary school pupils across Israel on behalf of the Rashi Foundation, including a municipal science excellence center in cooperation with the municipality of Beersheva.

“The participating kindergarten teachers received special training at Beit Yatziv that focused on the science behind natural phenomena such as the seasons, astronomy, robotics and more,” said Maya Lugassi Ben-Hemo, head of pedagogy at Beit Yatziv.

In-service training and academic guidance by Kaye College of Education and the pedagogic team of Beit Yatziv will continue through the school year, she added.

Ben-Hemo emphasized that the children won’t lack time to enjoy traditional activities such as coloring and building with blocks. “The science and technology program will be integrated within the regular curriculum of the Ministry of Education for science-oriented kindergartens, which obviously includes play time,” she said.

The goal is for children participating in the program to enter elementary school with a deeper understanding of science, technology, engineering and math, and that this model for technological early childhood education will be duplicated across Israel. The program “is intended to serve as a regional learning center” for teachers, other education professionals and parents, Ben-Hemo said.

Lockheed’s Hewson was not the only big name on hand when the science kindergarten was dedicated this past October. Also in attendance were Minister of Education Naftali Bennett, Beersheva Mayor Rubik Danilovitch, Rashi Foundation chairman (and retired general) Gabi Ashkenazi, and other dignitaries from Israel and abroad.

“The significance of the knowledge the children gain in preschool will be felt in years to come, and it will surely be highly valuable on the personal as well as the national level,” Bennett said at the event. “Opening the first science kindergarten in Beersheva sends a clear message — that everyone, everywhere in Israel, should have equal opportunities.”

Ashkenazi said the Rashi Foundation views the promotion of science and technology education from an early age as a major catalyst for strengthening Israeli society and closing educational gaps between the center and periphery of the country.

“The science kindergarten in Beersheva, the capital of the Negev, is an innovative and unique project that will give children an opportunity to cultivate their independent and inquisitive thinking and make an early start on their science education,” Ashkenazi said. “This is the first step on the path that will lead them, and the country, to new achievements in science and advanced technology.”

Desperately seeking STEM: Ministry works to promote cyber-education

Israel signs second agreement with tech firm Lockheed-Martin to encourage more kids to study science and tech

But despite the best efforts of government and industry, statistics show that STEM is still a hard sell. Kids, it appears, are intimidated by math and science, and prefer “easier” subjects. It’s a major problem around the world, including in the US.

“Ninety-seven percent of US high schools do not teach STEM effectively enough to provide students with real-life skills that will enable them to get into advance tech programs in colleges,” and neither kids, parents, nor school boards are demanding those subjects, according to Rick Geritz, one of the world’s foremost experts on cyber-education.

Evolution, Futurism, Genetics, GUT-CP, Philosophy, physics, Planet Earth, technology

Humans… time to decide what kind of civilisation you wish to be! Star Trek or Jupiter Ascending?

 

“My friend was today asking the potential implications for the human race of Randell Mills’ monumental discovery…
Coincidently an interesting post appeared on Reddit Brilliant Light Power entitled ‘The Oiligarchs’
Fabius Maximus posed a similar question entitled “Is our future Star Trek or the dystopian Jupiter Ascending?”

The question is…
“Will hydrino energy and the Grand Unified Theory Of Classical have a beneficial impact upon human civilisation?”…

The answer is, it’s the same as EVERY other technology and discovery throughout history… it’s how it’s wielded, by whom, and for what purpose.

The way our civilisation functions today (and has functioned for the previous 12,800 years)… the psychopathic ruling elite will control all aspects to energy, eugenics, and ‘money’… The Grand Unified Theory Of Classical Physics will create a technological revolution for the 21st century… but by the end of that century, I imagine (in all seriousness), the planets elites will be well on their way to becoming immortal intergalactic GODS, whilst the rest of the mere mortal humans will be a subservient species at the complete mercy of their overlord masters.

And all those science fictions films, portraying terrifying planet conquering, evil invading alien civilisations, hell bent on control of the Universe… THAT’LL BE US! 😀

“The 20th century was the century of oil. From farm to fork, factory to freeway, there is no aspect of our modern life that has not been shaped by the oil industry. But as the “post-carbon” era of the 21st century comes into view, there are those who see this as the end of the oiligarchy. They couldn’t be more wrong. This is the remarkable true story of the world that Big Oil is creating, and how they plan to bring it about.”

Posted byu/WupWup9r
The Oiligarchs
Shortly before SoCP was terminated, Dr. Mills expressed an interest in expanding finance models. This was in association with the discussion concerning cryptocurrency. It may be important to examine this from a broader and historical perspective.
James Corbett is an extraordinary documentarian. There are many types of people in the world. Most of us want to mind our own business, to be helpful to people we know, and sometimes to people we don’t know, displaying altruism on occasion. Witness the explosion of helpful videos on YouTube, unrewarded. Few of us are psychotic or sociopathic. We may have ambitions, but ruling the world is not something the ordinary person becomes obsessed with doing. Sure, we’re not perfect, but we feel shame or guilt when we realize we did something wrong. We tend to believe in the golden rule, even if we do not consistently follow it. Most of us tend to believe that psychotics are scary people who live in the shadows, away from respectable people. Many psychotics do live obscurely, but some adapt to very challenging lifestyles, and command prestige. They can be quite likeable. Consider the psychologist Ted Bundy.
Corbett is vitally aware that psychologically dangerous people occupy social positions of great prestige, and I think he explains his clear thinking well. He believes that he sees through a lot of deceptions, and his opinions are worth considering, IMO.
The linked video is wide-ranging. The common thread is the way that energy has been used to control society, and which members of society benefit, and why, as well as the cost to the ordinary members of society.
Corbett is hardly alone in these views. If he is at least somewhat correct, then I would think it is not a stretch to conclude that Dr. Mills should take this history into consideration, because powerful psychotic people do not yield their power willingly. One need not be a psychotic to defeat a psychotic, but it helps. That is, a successful psychotic can be a very formidable opponent, and if you do not realize what you are up against, and how to fight, you will lose.

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Dude… we’ve been living under the control of psychopaths for the past 12,800 years! (not because of aliens or demons, but because of a cometary impact that almost wiped our species out, we’re a traumatised species)… OUR CIVILISATION IS BUILT UPON SURVIVAL MODE (the lowest form of consciousness), it rewards the psychopath and elevates him (or her) to the top level of feudal oligarchy (whether that be Fascism, Communism, Capitalism, Monarchism, any ‘ism’)… … when you realise what ‘money’ actually is! Its a Babylonian magic trick… it’s the RESISTOR to the amount of the Suns energy in human society! If humans did away with it, they would be a peaceful, intergalactic, space faring civilisation (Type 2)… even if you don’t believe in ‘conspiracies’ as such, look into the work of Jacques Fresco and The Venus Project… money is a form of control, it is the resistor to the amount of the Suns energy in society… Mills has brought the power of the Sun down to the surface of planet Earth… THINGS ARE GOING TO CHANGE IN A BIG WAY FOR THIS SPECIES!
Whether that be a Star Trek civilisation, or a Jupiter Ascending civilisation (where the elites become immortal Gods, and the rest become fully obedient slaves… essentially a lower species)… things will change in the next 100 years! 😀
…Another thing to consider is, the last time we had a technological revolution of magnitude (The Industrial Revolution), the human population exploded from 1 billion to 7 billion in 200 years… … what do you think the effect of Mills’s discovery (energy, medicine, genetics etc.) is going to be? Do you think the planet can cope with another population explosion? Big things many people are not considering!

And who gives a shit for the Saudis? 😀 (they have no nukes for a reason!) They can fuck off and try selling sand! Us Brits created the Saudis, we can destroy them whenever we wish!
ALL GOVERNMENTS ARE PSYCHOPATHIC!

Our future will be Jupiter Ascending, unless we make it Star Trek

Larry Kummer, Editor
Book, Film, & TV Reviews, New Industrial Revolution
27 January 2016
Summary: Will our future be like Star Trek or Jupiter Ascending? Star Trek shows us a world beyond scarcity where everybody benefits. In Jupiter Ascending the 1% takes the wealth produced by technology and uses it to rule us. We can choose to make Star Trek our future if we are willing to work for it, but now we’re condemning our children to live in Jupiter Ascending.

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“No, I don’t share my wealth. Why do you ask?” From Jupiter Ascending.

Consider the increase in the West’s wealth since 1750 and the advancement in technology. Imagine similar progress for another 250 years, to the time of the original Star Trek TV series. Rick Webb describes that world in “The Economics of Star Trek: The Proto-Post Scarcity Economy“, a market economy whose productivity allows the government to easily provide a high basic income allowance to everybody.

“The amount of welfare benefits available to all citizens is in excess of the needs of the citizens. … Citizens have no financial need to work, as their benefits are more than enough to provide a comfortable life, and there is, clearly, universal health care and education. The Federation has clearly taken the plunge to the other side of people’s fears about European socialist capitalism: yes, some people might not work. So What? Good for them. We think most still will.”

Discussions about Star Trek often focus on what we do with the abundance of goods and services produced by their fantastic tech. It’s fun, like composing fantasy football teams or designing the ideal Prime Directive.
In our world the 1% shows us an alternative to Star Trek. The largest fraction of America’s increased income since 1970 has gone to the 1% — and even more to the .1%. They could share the booty (nobody can consume a billion dollars in a lifetime), but prefer instead to amass wealth and power. Why would this change with the invention of robots and replicators? Continue current trends for a few centuries and you reach Jupiter Ascending — a world of servants and lords, where the rich own planets, live almost forever, and harvest the peons. A world like that of our past, as seen in Pride and Prejudice.
enterprise1
This is the natural course of events for our future. Increased productivity comes from machines and intellectual property. Those who build them earn a living, while the wealth they create goes to those who own them. Software engineers live in nice homes while plutocrats own estates, yachts, submarines, and jets.
Our society has begun to adapt our new reality. The institutions formerly supported by the middle class, such as magazines and charities, find rich patrons to survive. Unions, the center of organized opposition to the 1%, have faded to shadows of their former strength. The major Republican candidates for president agree that taxes on the rich must fall and social services for the rest must be cut. Hillary, like her husband, likes the current rate at which the 1% grows in power and wealth, but wishes to tinker at the edges.
Visions of a great future, like that of Star Trek, can inspire us to act. But the window to do so will close eventually, if the 1% gains enough power that they become invincible. We will leave a dark future to our children if we continue our passivity. Perhaps that fear can shake us from our apathy.

I would say the ONLY way to prevent a dystopian future, where the ruling psychopathic elite have become immortal Gods, ruling their own planets (like Scientology, but for real! :D)… is to completely abandon the concept of money, of Government… The Venus Project… it’s the only way.

“Lord Hurley”
“Fucks talking to you boy?”

Chemistry, Climate Change, Environment, Futurism, GUT-CP, hydrides, hydrino, HydrinoDollars, HydrinoEconomy, Millsian, Molecular modelling, New elements, physics, Randell Mills, SunCell, technology

Hydrino energy & GUT-CP… WHERE’S SILICONE VALLEY ON THIS? (Dr. Mills presentation at Fresno State, 2017)

“You have to understand something about the United Kingdom at this moment in history… it is not the place for great scientific innovation and big ideas! Long gone are the days of Newton. In fact some of us are comparing it to the beginnings of Nazi Germany (this whole mass surveillance, gang stalking thing is unprecedented in history, and no-ones really saying anything about it)… and with Brexit and the possible effects on the countries scientific activities… most of the UK’s best scientists and theoreticians may be best getting out now.”
What would a Brexit mean for the scientific community?

“Anyway… we where talking about California and Silicone Valley! Silicone Valley has for the past thirty years been the centre for this kind of innovative thinking and world changing ideas… Randell Mills is the greatest scientific mind of our age, he has created a future multi-trillion dollar industry, an unlimited number of future industries… it will effect EVERYTHING from energy, to medicine, to computers, to chemical compounds, to transport and aviation… the space industry! WHERE ARE YOU ON THIS ONE CALIFORNIA?
… I’m coming to Silicone Valley in 2019! … and Virginia!”
(I may have to speak to some people at the US Embassy, because last time I tried boarding a flight to California…  there where some slight problems)

silicone valley

Dr. Mills presentation at Fresno State on February 27, 2017.

Brilliant Light Power presented its Roadshow series event at ABM Industries Irvine, California location on February 28th, 2017. In addition, the Company addressed the updated commercial strategy that was expanded to subsidiaries, the latest timeline, and terms for the availability of access to its latest commercial designs and developments.

DNA, Evolution, Genetics, GUT-CP, Life

Energy and the Evolution of Life on Earth… including Human Evolution

xmencharleserik

“For the first time in the history of life on Earth, the power of the Sun has been brought down to the surface of the planet”… do you realise the implications of this? The implications for our species, and what it can become?… Evolution.

And it’s not just the implications of having limitless energy, that can be harnessed anywhere in the cosmos, at our fingertips… it’s the implications GUT-CP can have on our DNA, our genetics, epigenetics, our health, our lifespan… … our abilities… it is truly the most monumental and powerful discovery our species has ever made.”

“After the Industrial Revolution, the human population exploded from 1 billion to 7 billion in just 200 years… the implications of introducing such an energy source and new technologies will most likely cause another such explosion…”

“There’s a solution to that also… but if humanity doesn’t introduce such an energy source, the human population will exhaust the planets resources and eventually collapse… it’s an inevitability. For the first time in our history, evolution is in our hands.”

 

The energy expansions of evolution

evo fire
Abstract

The history of the life–Earth system can be divided into five ‘energetic’ epochs, each featuring the evolution of life forms that can exploit a new source of energy. These sources are: geochemical energy, sunlight, oxygen, flesh and fire. The first two were present at the start, but oxygen, flesh and fire are all consequences of evolutionary events. Since no category of energy source has disappeared, this has, over time, resulted in an expanding realm of the sources of energy available to living organisms and a concomitant increase in the diversity and complexity of ecosystems. These energy expansions have also mediated the transformation of key aspects of the planetary environment, which have in turn mediated the future course of evolutionary change. Using energy as a lens thus illuminates patterns in the entwined histories of life and Earth, and may also provide a framework for considering the potential trajectories of life–planet systems elsewhere.

Free energy is a universal requirement for life. It drives mechanical motion and chemical reactions—which in biology can change a cell or an organism. Over the course of Earth history, the harnessing of free energy by organisms has had a dramatic impact on the planetary environment. Yet the variety of free-energy sources available to living organisms has expanded over time. These expansions are consequences of events in the evolution of life, and they have mediated the transformation of the planet from an anoxic world that could support only microbial life, to one that boasts the rich geology and diversity of life present today. Here, I review these energy expansions, discuss how they map onto the biological and geological development of Earth, and consider what this could mean for the trajectories of life–planet systems elsewhere.
evo fire1

 

A Grand New Theory of Life’s Evolution on Earth

A series of energy revolutions—some natural, some technological—built upon one another to give us our rich, diverse biosphere.
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Consider a human dropped into primordial soup 3.8 billions years ago, when life first began. They would have nothing to eat. Earth then had no plants, no animals, no oxygen even. Good luck scrounging up 1600 calories a day drinking pond- or sea water. So how did we get sources of concentrated energy (i.e. food) growing on trees and lumbering through grass? How did we end up with a planet that can support billions of energy-hungry, big-brained, warm-blooded, upright-walking humans?
In “The Energy Expansions of Evolution,” an extraordinary new essay in Nature Ecology and Evolution, Olivia Judson sets out a theory of successive energy revolutions that purports to explain how our planet came to have such a diversity of environments that support such a rich array of life, from the cyanobacteria to daisies to humans.
Judson divides the history of the life on Earth into five energetic epochs, a novel schema that you will not find in geology or biology textbooks. In order, the energetic epochs are: geochemical energy, sunlight, oxygen, flesh, and fire. Each epoch represents the unlocking of a new source of energy, coinciding with new organisms able to exploit that source and alter their planet. The previous sources of energy stay around, so environments and life on Earth become ever more diverse. Judson calls it a “step-wise construction of a life-planet system.”

In the epoch of geochemical energy 3.7 billion years ago, the first living organisms “fed” on molecules like hydrogen and methane that formed in reaction between water and rocks. They wrung energy out of chemical bonds. It was not very efficient—the biosphere’s productivity then was an estimated a thousand to a million times less than it is today.

Sunlight, of course, was shining on Earth all along. When microbes that can harness sunlight finally evolve, the productivity and diversity of the biosphere leveled up. One particular type of bacteria, called cyanobacteria, hits upon a way of harnessing the sun’s energy that makes oxygen (O2) as a byproduct, and with profound consequences: The planet gets an ozone (O3) layer that blocks UV radiation, new minerals through oxygen reactions, and an atmosphere full of highly reactive O2.
Which brings us to the epoch of oxygen. Given an opportunity, oxygen will steal electrons from anything it finds. New oxygen-resistant organisms evolve with enzymes to protect them from oxygen. They have advantages too: Because oxygen is so reactive, it makes the metabolism of these organisms much more efficient. In some conditions, organisms can get 16 times as much energy out of a glucose molecule with the presence of oxygen than without.
With more energy, you can have motion and so in the epoch of flesh, highly mobile animals become abundant. They can fly, swim, ran to catch prey. “Flesh” is source of concentrated energy, rich in fats and protein and carbon.

Then one particular type of animal—those of the genus Homo—figure out fire. Fire lets us cook, which may have allowed us to get more nutrition out of the same food. It lets us forge labor-saving metal tools. It lets us create fertilizer through the Haber-Bosch process to grow food on industrial scales. It lets us burn fossils fuels for energy.
This is only a short summary, but I encourage you to read the essay in full.

Lynn Rothschild, an astrobiologist at NASA Ames, told me “It was one those papers where damn, I wish I thought of writing it.’” At the very end, Judson speculates that other life-planet systems in the universe may have also evolved through a series of energy expansions. If we want to look for life, we shouldn’t only look for planets look like present-day Earth—a point Rothschild has been making for years. “When people talk about looking for an Earth-like planet, they say it’s got to have oxygen and I go, ‘Are you crazy?,’” she says. “If you were looking at Earth billions of years ago you wouldn’t have seen it.”
So Earth’s evolution over billions of years might give us a blueprint for finding life less complex than ours. But what might a planet that has been through more energy expansions than Earth look like? Put another way, what’s next for the Earth?
One way to ask that question is to ask what innovation will launch us into the next energetic epoch and leave it’s mark on the environment. Another is to ask what life will look like in that epoch—both what lifeforms could become extinct and what could eventually become possible. After all, it took billions of years and several energy expansions to make oxygen-breathing, flesh-eating, fire-wielding humans possible on Earth.
dna2

Energy, genes and evolution: introduction to an evolutionary synthesis

energycover
“The final two papers in this Special Issue relate to the evolution and physiology of animals, and in particular to the problems of ageing and disease, in relation to bioenergetics. de Paula et al. [49] present new evidence demonstrating that oocyte mitochondria are transcriptionally and functionally inactive in the ovaries of the common jellyfish. This finding is significant because only the female passes on mitochondria; sperm mitochondria, which are active, and whose DNA is therefore at high risk of oxidative damage through use, are not inherited. This difference is predicted to be a general distinction between anisogamous sexes in metazoans [19]. Early sequestration of inactive ‘template’ mitochondria in the female germ line impedes the accumulation of mitochondrial mutations. Insofar as mitochondrial mutations are linked with ageing, sequestration of inactive germ line mitochondria should prevent the inheritance of ‘aged’ phenotypes and therefore delay ageing [16]. The final paper by Wallace [50] provides a synthesis of the central role of mitochondria in human adaptation and disease. The high evolution rate of mitochondrial DNA (up to 40× faster than the nuclear mean in humans [51]) facilitates physiological adaptation to different climates and diets, with nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins being forced to coadapt to new mitochondrial haplotypes. However, sudden changes in diet and environment linked with modern life creates gene-environment mismatches that manifest in humans as prevalent metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Wallace argues here that the missing genetic information (not detected by genome-wide association studies) is primarily mitochondrial DNA variation plus regional nuclear DNA variants that are by definition missed by large inter-population linkage studies.
Are we witnessing a bioenergetic synthesis in evolutionary biology? The ‘modern synthesis’ of the past century linked Mendel’s genes and the process of mutation with Darwin’s theory of natural selection to explain how new species come to be. While the mechanisms of natural selection are correct, and increasingly well understood, they do little to explain the actual trajectories taken by life on Earth. These trajectories are constrained by thermodynamics. No energy; no evolution. There is nothing in evolutionary theory that explains why life arose very early on Earth, nearly 4 billion years ago; why there was then a delay of 2–3 billion years before more complex eukaryotic cells first arose; why the origin of eukaryotes was apparently a singular event; or why eukaryotes share so many complex traits such as sex, phagocytosis and the nucleus, traits which show no tendency to evolve in prokaryotes at all. Yet all these major evolutionary transitions have an energetic basis, and, in some cases, an energetic cause.
A synthesis of energetics and genetics can help us view cell evolution in a new light, one that also illuminates central aspects of human health and ageing. This volume contributes to that synthesis, and we thank the Royal Society and all those involved for putting together the meeting and these pages.
humandna

 

The following article was authored in 1995. Some may think it’s out of date and no longer relevant. The eventual collapse of civilisation is STILL a reality, but, as I keep saying… THE SOLUTION IS HYDRINO ENERGY!

Energy and Human Evolution

by David Price

From Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies
Volume 16, Number 4, March 1995, pp. 301-19
1995 Human Sciences Press, Inc.
Life on Earth is driven by energy. Autotrophs take it from solar radiation and heterotrophs take it from autotrophs. Energy captured slowly by photosynthesis is stored up, and as denser reservoirs of energy have come into being over the course of Earth’s history, heterotrophs that could use more energy evolved to exploit them, Homo sapiens is such a heterotroph; indeed, the ability to use energy extrasomatically (outside the body) enables human beings to use far more energy than any other heterotroph that has ever evolved. The control of fire and the exploitation of fossil fuels have made it possible for Homo sapiens to release, in a short time, vast amounts of energy that accumulated long before the species appeared.
By using extrasomatic energy to modify more and more of its environment to suit human needs, the human population effectively expanded its resource base so that for long periods it has exceeded contemporary requirements. This allowed an expansion of population similar to that of species introduced into extremely, propitious new habitats, such as rabbits in Australia or Japanese beetles in the United States. The world’s present population of over 5.5 billion is sustained and continues to grow through the use of extrasomatic energy.
But the exhaustion of fossil fuels, which supply three quarters of this energy, is not far off, and no other energy source is abundant and cheap enough to take their place. A collapse of the earth’s human population cannot be more than a few years away. If there are survivors, they will not be able to carry on the cultural traditions of civilization, which require abundant, cheap energy. It is unlikely, however, that the species itself can long persist without the energy whose exploitation is so much a part of its modus vivendi.
The human species may be seen as having evolved in the service of entropy, and it cannot be expected to outlast the dense accumulations of energy that have helped define its niche. Human beings like to believe they are in control of their destiny, but when the history of life on Earth is seen in perspective, the evolution of Homo sapiens is merely a transient episode that acts to redress the planet’s energy balance.
Ever since Malthus, at least, it has been clear that means of subsistence do not grow as fast as population. No one has ever liked the idea that famine, plague, and war are nature’s way of redressing the imbalance — Malthus himself suggested that the operation of “preventive checks,” which serve to reduce the birth rate, might help prolong the interval between such events (1986, vol. 2, p. 10 [1826, vol. 1, p. 7]). 1 And in the two hundred years since Malthus sat down to pen his essay, there has been no worldwide cataclysm. But in the same two centuries world population has grown exponentially while irreplaceable resources were used up. Some kind of adjustment is inevitable.
Today, many people who are concerned about overpopulation and environmental degradation believe that human actions can avert catastrophe. The prevailing view holds that a stable population that does not tax the environment’s “carrying capacity” would be sustainable indefinitely, and that this state of equilibrium can be achieved through a combination of birth control, conservation, and reliance on “renewable” resources. Unfortunately, worldwide implementation of a rigorous program of birth control is politically impossible. Conservation is futile as long as population continues to rise. And no resources are truly renewable. 2
The environment, moreover, is under no obligation to carry a constant population of any species for an indefinite period of time. If all of nature were in perfect balance, every species would have a constant population, sustained indefinitely at carrying capacity. But the history of life involves competition among species, with new species evolving and old ones dying out. In this context, one would expect populations to fluctuate, and for species that have been studied, they generally do (ecology texts such as Odum, 1971 and Ricklefs, 1979 give examples).
The notion of balance in nature is an integral part of traditional western cosmology. But science has found no such balance. According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, energy flows from areas of greater concentration to areas of lesser concentration, and local processes run down. Living organisms may accumulate energy temporarily but in the fullness of time entropy prevails. While the tissue of life that coats the planet Earth has been storing up energy for over three billion years, it cannot do so indefinitely. Sooner or later, energy that accumulates must be released. This is the bioenergetic context in which Homo sapiens evolved, and it accounts for both the wild growth of human population and its imminent collapse.

ENERGY IN EVOLUTION
We are caught up, as organic beings, in the natural process through which the earth accepts energy from the sun and then releases it. There has been life on Earth for at least three and a half billion years, and over this time there has been a clear and constant evolution in the way energy is used. The first living things may have obtained energy from organic molecules that had accumulated in their environment, but photosynthetic autotrophs, able to capture energy from sunlight, soon evolved, making it possible for life to escape this limited niche. The existence of autotrophs made a place for heterotrophs, which use energy that has already been captured by autotrophs.
It is not clear how photosynthesis got started, although it is a combination of two systems that can be found singly in some life forms that still exist. But blue-green algae, which are among the earliest organisms documented in the fossil record, already employed the two-stage process that was eventually handed down to green plants. This is a complex sequence of events that has a simple outcome. Carbon dioxide (of which there was an abundance in the earth’s early atmosphere) reacts with water through energy from light, fixing carbon and releasing oxygen, and a portion of the energy remains captive as long as the carbon and the oxygen remain apart. Plants release this energy when and where necessary to conduct their metabolic business (Starr & Taggart, 1987).
As time passed, the sheer bulk of life increased, so that more and more energy was, at any given time, stored in living matter. Additional energy was stored when carbon from once-living matter was buried, in ever-so-tiny increments, under the surface of the earth-in deposits that became coal, petroleum, and natural gas as well as in sedimentary rocks containing calcium and magnesium carbonates derived from shells. Of all the carbon that has played a part in the life process, very little was separated out and held apart in this way, but over the course of millions and millions of years, it has mounted up. More and more carbon wound up under the ground, with a greater and greater amount of oxygen in the earth’s atmosphere. This separation of carbon and oxygen from a primeval atmosphere in which carbon dioxide and water were abundant represents a vast accumulation of solar energy from the past.
Life evolves to exploit every possible niche, and as autotrophs developed better ways to capture and store the sun’s energy, heterotrophs developed better ways to steal it. Independent locomotion was adaptive in the search for nutrients, although it took a little more energy than being buffeted about by the elements. Cold-blooded fish and amphibians were followed by warm-blooded species, which reap the benefits of remaining active at lower temperatures, while using yet more energy in the process. The development of predation opened access to a supply of high-energy food with a further energy investment in procuring it. Throughout the history of life, as increasingly dense reservoirs of energy became available, species that made use of increasing amounts of energy evolved (see Simpson, 1949, pp. 256-57). This is the natural context of Homo sapiens, the most energy-using species the world has ever known.

THE HUMAN ANIMAL
The extent of human energy use is a consequence of the human capacity for extrasomatic adaptation. This capacity makes it possible for human beings to adjust to a wide variety of novel circumstances without having to wait many generations for evolution to change their bodies. A comparison of somatic and extrasomatic adaptation will show just how remarkable an ability this is: If longer, sharper teeth are adaptive for a predator, animals with teeth that are slightly longer and sharper than those of their fellows will have a slight reproductive advantage, so that genes for longer and sharper teeth will have a slightly greater likelihood of being passed on, and so, over the course of time, the teeth of average members of the population will come to be, little by little, longer and sharper. In contrast, a human hunter can imagine a longer, sharper arrowhead; he can fashion it with nimble hands; and if it is really more efficient than the short, blunt arrowheads that everybody else has been using, his peers will soon adopt the new invention. The chief difference between the two means of adaptation is speed: Humans can adapt, relatively speaking, in a flash.
Extrasomatic adaptation is possible because humans are, in the idiom of the computer age, programmable. Somatic adaptation is like building a hard-wired computer to perform a certain task better than a previous hardwired computer. Extrasomatic adaptation is like writing a new program to perform the task better, without having to build new hardware. The use of language, with its arbitrary relationship between signs and referents, makes possible a wide variety of different software.
Programmability — the ability to learn — is not unique with human beings, but they have developed the capacity much further than any other species. Programmability probably developed as an evolutionary response to pressure for flexibility. The ability to make use of a variety of different resources runs deep in the human background, for placental mammals arose from ancestral forms in the order Insectivora that presumably ate insects, seeds, buds, eggs, and other animals. When our hominid ancestors came down from the trees to exploit the African savannas, flexibility was again advantageous. Homo habilis and his fellows were furtive little scavengers who picked what they could from carcasses that leopards left behind and rounded out their diet with fruits and nuts and roots (see Binford, 1981; Brain, 1981). They lived by their wits, and natural selection favored hardware that would permit quick-wittedness.
Programmability — and the consequent capacity for extrasomatic adaptation — have made it possible for human beings to advance a very old evolutionary trend at a vastly increased rate. Humans are the most recent in the series of heterotrophs that use increasing amounts of energy, but they differ from other species in this lineup in their ability to use more energy without further speciation. Over the course of humanity’s short history, greater and greater amounts of energy have been used by the same biological species (see White, 1949, chapter 13).

EXTRASOMATIC ENERGY
Some human innovations have dealt with the fate of energy channeled through metabolic processes. The development of weapons, for example, made it possible to focus somatic energy so as to obtain high-energy foods with much greater efficiency. Man became a hunter. This may have been the innovation that let Homo erectus prosper and permitted his species to radiate out of the African cradle, pursuing game throughout the tropics of the Old World (Binford, 1981, p. 296). Similarly, the use of clothes brought about a conservation of bodily energy that helped make possible the conquest of more temperate regions.
But the most remarkable human innovation is the use of extrasomatic energy, wherein energy is made to accomplish human ends outside the bodies of its users. And the most important source of extrasomatic energy, by far, is fire. Fire was used by Homo erectus in northern China more than 400,000 years ago, and there is sketchy evidence suggesting that it may have been used long before that (Gowlett, 1984, pp. 181-82). Through the use of fire, meat did not have to be rent by main strength; it could be cooked until tender. Fire could be used to hollow out a log or harden the point of a stick. Fire could drive game from cover and smoke out bees. Fire could hold fierce animals at bay.
The exploitation of animal power played an important role in the densification of population that was at the root of what we call civilization. Animals pulled the plow, animals carried produce to market, and animals provided a protein-rich complement to a diet of grain. Wind power was soon utilized to carry cargo by water. But fire remained the most important source of extrasomatic energy, and it made possible the development of ceramics and metallurgy.
Until quite recently, however, there was no real innovation in the fuel used to make fire. For hundreds of thousands of years, fire was made with the tissues of recently deceased organisms-principally wood. The development of charcoal improved on the energy density of untreated wood, and made a substantial contribution to metallurgy. Then, just a few millennia later, the same oxygen-deprived roasting process was applied to coal. In England, coal had been used to heat living space since the Norman Conquest, but the development of coke and its suitability for steelmaking set off the Industrial Revolution. Within an evolutionary wink, petroleum and natural gas were also being exploited, and Homo sapiens had begun to dissipate the rich deposits of organic energy that had been accumulating since the beginning of life. If the slow accretion of these deposits in the face of universal entropy can be likened to the buildup of water behind a dam, then with the appearance of a species capable of dissipating that energy, the dam burst.

ENERGY AND RESOURCES
According to the American Heritage Dictionary, resources are “An available supply that can be drawn upon when needed” and “Means that can be used to advantage.” In other words, resources include all the things found in nature that people use-not just the things people use for survival, but things they use for any purpose whatever. This is a very broad concept, as required by the nature of the defining animal. The resources used by other animals consist primarily of food, plus a few other materials such as those used for nest building. But for Homo sapiens, almost everything “can be used to advantage.”
For something to be a resource, it must be concentrated or organized in a particular way, and separate, or separable, from its matrix. Ore from an iron mine is a resource in a way that garden soil is not-even though both do contain iron. Similarly, wood from the trunk of an oak tree is a resource in a way that wood from its twigs is not.
Using a resource means dispersing it. When we quarry limestone and send it off to build public monuments, or when we mine coal and burn it to drive turbines, we are making use of a concentrated resource, and dispersing it. A large, continuous mass of limestone winds up as a number of discrete blocks spread around in different locations; and coal, after briefly giving off heat and light, becomes a small amount of ash and a large amount of gas. Resources may be temporarily accumulated in a stockpile, but their actual use always results in dispersal.
Resources may be used for their material properties or for the energy they contain. Bauxite is a material resource, while coal is an energy resource. Some resources may be used either way; wood, for example, may be used as a construction material or burned in a wood stove, and petroleum may be used to make plastics or to power cars.
The exploitation of all resources requires an investment in energy; it takes energy to knap flint or drill for oil. The exploitation of energy resources must entail a good return on investment; unless the energy they release is considerably more than the energy used to make them release it, they are not worth exploiting.
Since nothing is a resource unless it can be used, resources are defined by the technology that makes it possible to exploit them. Since exploiting a resource always requires energy, the evolution of technology has meant the application of energy to a growing array of substances so that they can be “used to advantage.” In the brief time since humans began living in cities, they have used more and more energy to exploit more and more resources.

THE POPULATION EXPLOSION
The cost of energy limited the growth of technology until fossil fuels came into use, a little less than three hundred years ago. Fossil fuels contain so much energy that they provide a remarkable return on investment even when used inefficiently. When coal is burned to drive dynamos, for example, only 35% of its energy ultimately becomes electricity (Ross & Steinmeyer, 1990, p. 89). Nevertheless, an amount of electricity equal to the energy used by a person who works all day, burning up 1,000 calories worth of food, can be bought for less than ten cents (Loftness, 1984, p. 2). 3
The abundant, cheap energy provided by fossil fuels has made it possible for humans to exploit a staggering variety of resources, effectively expanding their resource base. In particular, the development of mechanized agriculture has allowed relatively few farmers to work vast tracts of land, producing an abundance of food and making possible a wild growth of population.
All species expand as much as resources allow and predators, parasites, and physical conditions permit. When a species is introduced into a new habitat with abundant resources that accumulated before its arrival, the population expands rapidly until all the resources are used up. In wine making, for example, a population of yeast cells in freshly-pressed grape juice grows exponentially until nutrients are exhausted-or waste products become toxic (Figure 1).
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Figure 1. Growth of yeast in a 10% sugar solution (After Dieter, 1962:45). The fall of the curve is slowed by cytolysis, which recycles nutrients from dead cells.

An example featuring mammals is provided by the reindeer of St. Matthew Island, in the Bering Sea (Klein, 1968). This island had a mat of lichens more than four inches deep, but no reindeer until 1944, when a herd of 29 was introduced. By 1957 the population had increased to 1,350; and by 1963 it was 6,000. But the lichens were gone, and the next winter the herd died off. Come spring, only 41 females and one apparently dysfunctional male were left alive (Figure 2). 4
fig2

Figure 2. Growth of reindeer herd introduced to St. Matthew Island, Alaska (After Klein, 1968:352).

The use of extrasomatic energy, and especially energy from fossil fuels, has made it possible for humans to exploit a wealth of resources that accumulated before they evolved. This has resulted in population growth typical of introduced species (Figure 3).
fig3

Figure 3. Growth of worldwide human population (Adapted from Corson, 1990:25).

Around 8,000 BC, world population was something like five million. By the time of Christ, it was 200 to 300 million. By 1650, it was 500 million, and by 1800 it was one billion. The population of the world reached two billion by 1930. By the beginning of the ’60s it was three billion; in 1975 it was four billion; and after only eleven more years it was five billion (McEvedy & Jones, 1978; Ehrlich & Ehrlich, 1990, pp. 52-55). This cannot go on forever; collapse is inevitable. The only question is when.

THE ENERGY SUPPLY
Today, the extrasomatic energy used by people around the world is equal to the work of some 280 billion men. It is as if every man, woman, and child in the world had 50 slaves. In a technological society such as the United States, every person has more than 200 such “ghost slaves.” 5
fig4

Figure 4. Worldwide energy consumption. Estimates of the world’s annual consumption of energy, at twenty-year intervals beginning in 1860, appear in Dorf, 1981:194. World population for these years is calculated from a graph in Corson, 1990:25. Per-capita energy use for more recent years is given in the Energy Statistics Yearbook, which is published yearly by the United Nations. Figures differ somewhat from volume to volume; I have chosen to use more recent ones, which are presumably based on more accurate information.

Most of this energy comes from fossil fuels, which supply nearly 75% of the world’s energy (see note 5). But fossil fuels are being depleted a hundred thousand times faster than they are being formed (Davis, 1990, P. 56). At current rates of consumption, known reserves of Petroleum will be gone in about thirty-five years; natural gas in fifty-two years; and coal in some two hundred years PRIMED, 1990, p. 145). 6
It should not be supposed that additional reserves, yet to be discovered, will significantly alter these figures. Recent advances in the geological sciences have taken much of the guesswork out of locating fossil hydrocarbons and the surface of the earth has been mapped in great detail with the aid of orbiting satellites. Moreover, these figures are optimistic because the demand for energy will not remain at current rates; it can be expected to grow at an ever-quickening pace. The more concentrated a resource, the less energy it takes to make use of it; and the less concentrated a resource, the more energy it takes. Consequently, the richest deposits of any resource are used first, and then lower-grade deposits are exploited, at an ever-increasing cost. As high-grade mineral ores are worked out, more and more energy is needed to mine and refine lower-grade ores. As oldgrowth timber vanishes, more and more energy is necessary to make lumber and paper out of smaller trees. As the world’s fisheries are worked out, it takes more and more energy to find and catch the remaining fish. And as the world’s topsoil is lost — at a rate of 75 billion tons a year (Myers, 1993, p. 37) — more and more energy must be used to compensate for the diminished fertility of remaining agricultural land.
The system that sustains world population is already under stress. The growth in per-capita energy use, which had been increasing continually since the advent of fossil fuels, began to slow down some twenty years ago — and the accelerating pace at which it has been slowing down suggests that there will be no growth at all by the year 2000 (Figure 4). Agriculture is in trouble; it takes more and more fertilizer to compensate for lost topsoil (Ehrlich & Ehrlich, 1990, p. 92), and nearly one-fifth of the world’s population is malnourished (Corson, 1990, p. 68). In fact, the growth rate of the earth’s human population has already begun to fall (Figure 5).
fig5

Figure 5. Growth rate of world population. Based on an average of estimates by Willcox (1940) and Carr-Saunders (1936) as adjusted and presented in United Nations, 1953:12; United Nations, 1993:6-7; and CIA, 1993:422.

People who believe that a stable population can live in balance with the productive capacity of the environment may see a slowdown in the growth of population and energy consumption as evidence of approaching equilibrium. But when one understands the process that has been responsible for population growth, it becomes clear that an end to growth is the beginning of collapse. Human population has grown exponentially by exhausting limited resources, like yeast in a vat or reindeer on St. Matthew Island, and is destined for a similar fate.

FALSE HOPES
To take over for fossil fuels as they run out, an alternative energy source would have to be cheap and abundant, and the technology to exploit it would have to be mature and capable of being operationalized all over the world in what may turn out to be a rather short time. No known energy source meets these requirements.
Today’s second-most-important source of energy, after fossil fuels, is biomass conversion. But all the world’s wood fires, all the grain alcohol added to gasoline, and all the agricultural wastes burned as fuel only provide 15% of the world’s energy (WRI/IIED, 1988, p. 111). And biomass conversion has little growth potential, since it competes for fertile land with food crops and timber.
Hydropower furnishes about 5.5% of the energy currently consumed (see note 5). Its potential may be as much as five times greater (Weinberg & Williams, 1990, p. 147), but this is not sufficient to take over from fossil fuels, and huge dams would submerge rich agricultural soils.
The production of electricity from nuclear fission has been increasing, but nuclear sources still supply only about 5.2% of the world’s total energy needs (see note 5). Fission reactors could produce a great deal more, especially if fast-breeder reactors were used. 7 But anyone with a fast-breeder reactor can make nuclear weapons, so there is considerable political pressure to prevent their proliferation. Public confidence in all types of reactors is low, and the cost of their construction is high. These social constraints make it unlikely that fission’s contribution to the world’s energy needs will grow fifteen-fold in the next few years.
Controlled thermonuclear fusion is an alluring solution to the world’s energy problems because the “fuel” it would use is deuterium, which can be extracted from plain water. The energy from one percent of the deuterium in the world’s oceans would be about five hundred thousand times as great as all the energy available from fossil fuels. But controlled fusion is still experimental, the technology for its commercialization has not yet been developed, and the first operational facility could not come on line much before 2040 (Browne, 1993, p. C12).
Visionaries support the potential of wind, waves, tides, ocean thermal energy conversion, and geothermal sources. All of these might be able to furnish a portion of the energy in certain localities, but none can supply 75% of the world’s energy needs. Solar thermal collection devices are only feasible where it is hot and sunny, and photovoltaics are too inefficient to supplant the cheap energy available from fossil fuels.
While no single energy source is ready to take the place of fossil fuels, their diminishing availability may be offset by a regimen of conservation and a combination of alternative energy sources. This will not solve the problem, however. As long as population continues to grow, conservation is futile; at the present rate of growth (1.6% per year), even a 25% reduction in resource use would be obliterated in just over eighteen years. And the use of any combination of resources that permits continued population growth can only postpone the day of reckoning.

THE MECHANISMS OF COLLAPSE
Operative mechanisms in the collapse of the human population will be starvation, social strife, and disease. These major disasters were recognized long before Malthus and have been represented in western culture as horsemen of the apocalypse. 8 They are all consequences of scarce resources and dense population.
Starvation will be a direct outcome of the depletion of energy resources. Today’s dense population is dependent for its food supply on mechanized agriculture and efficient transportation. Energy is used to manufacture and operate farm equipment, and energy is used to take food to market. As less efficient energy resources come to be used, food will grow more expensive and the circle of privileged consumers to whom an adequate supply is available will continue to shrink.
Social strife is another consequence of the rising cost of commercial energy. Everything people want takes energy to produce, and as energy becomes more expensive, fewer people have access to goods they desire. When goods are plentiful, and particularly when per-capita access to goods is increasing, social tensions are muted: Ethnically diverse populations often find it expedient to live harmoniously, governments may be ineffective and slow to respond, and little force is needed to maintain domestic tranquillity. But when goods become scarce, and especially when per-capita access to goods is decreasing, ethnic tensions surface, governments become authoritarian, and goods are acquired, increasingly, by criminal means.
A shortage of resources also cripples public health systems, while a dense population encourages the spread of contagious diseases. Throughout human history, the development of large, dense populations has led to the appearance of contagious diseases that evolved to exploit them. Smallpox and measles were apparently unknown until the second and third centuries AD, when they devastated the population of the Mediterranean basin (McNeill, 1976, p. 105). In the fourteenth century, a yet larger and denser population in both Europe and China provided a hospitable niche for the Black Death. Today, with extremely dense population and all parts of the world linked by air travel, new diseases such as AIDS spread rapidly-and a virus as deadly as AIDS but more easily transmissible could appear at any time.
Starvation, social strife, and disease interact in complex ways. If famine were the sole mechanism of collapse, the species might become extinct quite suddenly. A population that grows in response to abundant but finite resources, like the reindeer of St. Matthew Island, tends to exhaust these resources completely. By the time individuals discover that remaining resources will not be adequate for the next generation, the next generation has already been born. And in its struggle to survive, the last generation uses up every scrap, so that nothing remains that would sustain even a small population. But famine seldom acts alone. It is exacerbated by social strife, which interferes with the production and delivery of food. And it weakens the natural defenses by which organisms fight off disease.
Paradoxically, disease can act to spare resources. If, for example, a new epidemic should reduce the human population to a small number of people who happen to be resistant to it before all the world’s resources are severely depleted, the species might be able to survive a while longer.

AFTER THE FALL
But even if a few people manage to survive worldwide population collapse, civilization will not. The complex association of cultural traits of which modern humans are so proud is a consequence of abundant resources, and cannot long outlive their depletion.
Civilization refers, in its derivation, to the habit of living in dense nucleated settlements, which appeared as population grew in response to plentiful resources. Many things seem to follow as a matter of course when people live in cities, and wherever civilization occurred, it has involved political consolidation, economic specialization, social stratification, some sort of monumental architecture, and a flowering of artistic and intellectual endeavor (Childe, 1951).
Localized episodes of such cultural elaboration have always been associated with rapid population growth. Reasons for the abundance of resources that promoted this growth vary from one case to another. In some instances, a population moved into a new region with previously untapped resources; in other instances the development or adoption of new crops, new technologies, or new social strategies enhanced production. But the Sumerians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Mayas, and even the Easter Islanders all experienced a surge of creative activity as their populations grew rapidly.
And in all cases, this creative phase, nourished by the same abundance that promoted population growth, came to an end when growth ended. One need not seek esoteric reasons for the decline of Greece or the fall of Rome; in both cases, the growth of population exhausted the resources that had promoted it. After the Golden Age, the population of Greece declined continually for more than a thousand years, from 3 million to about 800,000. The population of the Roman Empire fell from 45 or 46 million, at its height, to about 39 million by 600 AD, and the European part of the empire was reduced by 25% (McEvedy & Jones, 1978).
Even if world population could be held constant, in balance with “renewable” resources, the creative impulse that has been responsible for human achievements during the period of growth would come to an end. And the spiraling collapse that is far more likely will leave, at best, a handfull of survivors. These people might get by, for a while, by picking through the wreckage of civilization, but soon they would have to lead simpler lives, like the hunters and subsistence farmers of the past. They would not have the resources to build great public works or carry forward scientific inquiry. They could not let individuals remain unproductive as they wrote novels or composed symphonies. After a few generations, they might come to believe that the rubble amid which they live is the remains of cities built by gods.
Or it may prove impossible for even a few survivors to subsist on the meager resources left in civilization’s wake. The children of the highly technological society into which more and more of the world’s peoples are being drawn will not know how to support themselves by hunting and gathering or by simple agriculture. In addition, the wealth of wild animals that once sustained hunting societies will be gone, and topsoil that has been spoiled by tractors will yield poorly to the hoe. A species that has come to depend on complex technologies to mediate its relationship with the environment may not long survive their loss.

INTO THE DARK
For Malthus, the imbalance between the growth of population and means of subsistence might be corrected, from time to time, through natural disasters, but the human species could, in principle, survive indefinitely. Malthus did not know that the universe is governed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics; he did not understand the population dynamics of introduced species; and he did not appreciate that humans, having evolved long after the resource base on which they now rely, are effectively an introduced species on their own planet.
The short tenure of the human species marks a turning point in the history of life on Earth. Before the appearance of Homo sapiens, energy was being sequestered more rapidly than it was being dissipated. Then human beings evolved, with the capacity to dissipate much of the energy that had been sequestered, partially redressing the planet’s energy balance. The evolution of a species like Homo sapiens may be an integral part of the life process, anywhere in the universe it happens to occur. As life develops, autotrophs expand and make a place for heterotrophs. If organic energy is sequestered in substantial reserves, as geological processes are bound to do, then the appearance of a species that can release it is all but assured. Such a species, evolved in the service of entropy, quickly returns its planet to a lower energy level. In an evolutionary instant, it explodes and is gone.
If the passage of Homo sapiens across evolution’s stage significantly alters Earth’s atmosphere, virtually all living things may become extinct quite rapidly. But even if this does not happen, the rise and fall of Homo sapiens will eliminate many species. It has been estimated that they are going extinct at a rate of 17,500 per year (Wilson, 1988, p. 13), and in the next twenty-five years as many as one-quarter of the world’s species may be lost (Raven, 1988, p. 121).
This is a radical reduction in biological diversity, although life has survived other die-offs, such as the great collapse at the end of the Permian. It is unlikely, however, that anything quite like human beings will come this way again. The resources that have made humans what they are will be gone, and there may not be time before the sun burns out for new deposits of fossil fuel to form and intelligent new scavengers to evolve. The universe seems to have had a unique beginning, some ten or twenty billion years ago (Hawking, 1988, p. 108). Since that time, a star had to live and die to provide the materials for the solar system — which, itself, is several billion years old. Perhaps life could not have happened any sooner than it did. Perhaps Homo sapiens could not have evolved any sooner. Or later. Perhaps everything has its season, a window of opportunity that opens for a while, then shuts.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I want to acknowledge the advice and encouragement of Virginia Abernethy, Thomas Eisner, Paul W. Friedrich, Warren M. Hern, David Pimentel, Roy A. Rappaport, Peter H. Raven, and Carl Sagan, who read earlier drafts of this paper.
NOTES
1. In the 1798 version of his essay, Malthus said that population grows geometrically while subsistence grows arithmetically. in later editions, he said that arithmetical growth was the most optimistic possible hypothesis; he was well aware that the availability of fertile soils must actually be diminishing.
2. The distinction between “nonrenewable” and “renewable” is arbitrary. Petroleum is considered nonrenewable, because when it’s used, it’s gone; while sunlight is considered renewable, because its energy can be used today and the sun will shine again tomorrow.
But given enough time, today’s forests could become tomorrow’s petroleum, and given an astronomical sweep of time, the sun itself will burn out. Only in terms of human time is an energy resource renewable or nonrenewable; and it is not even clear how human time should be measured. Wood is often considered a renewable resource, because if one tree is chopped down, another will grow in its place. But if a tree is taken off the mountainside rather than allowed to rot where it falls, nutrients that would nourish its successor are removed. If wood is continually removed, the fertility of the forest diminishes, and within a few human generations the forest will be gone.
3. Loftness actually says six cents. I have changed the figure to ten cents as a rough correction for inflation.
4. When the resources exploited by an introduced species are living organisms, they can reproduce — and they may eventually evolve defense mechanisms that promote an equilibrium between predator and prey (see Pimentel, 1988). The topsoil, minerals, and fossil fuels exploited by human beings do not have this capacity, however. They are more like the finite amount of sugar in a vat or the plentiful but slow-growing lichens on St. Matthew Island.
5. Worldwide production of energy from fossil fuels in 1992 was 302.81 x 1015 Btu, while energy from nuclear reactors was 21.23 x 1015 Btu and from hydroelectric sources was 22.29 x 1015 Btu (Energy Information Administration, 1993:269). Biomass is thought to account for about 15% of the world’s extrasomatic energy (WRI/IIED, 1988:111). Other sources of energy make only a minor contribution (Corson, 1990:197). Thus, the total extrasomatic energy used in the world must be on the order of 407.45 x 1015 Btu per year. World population is taken as 5.555 billion (CIA, 1993:422). The energy expended by an individual in doing a hard day’s work is taken to be 4,000 Btu (Loftness 1984:2, 756). Energy consumption in the United States is on the order of 82.36 X 1015 Btu (Energy Information Administration, 1993:5). U.S. population is taken as 258 million (CIA, 1993:404).
6. These are reserves known in 1988, depleted at 1988 rates. I have subtracted six years from the figures cited to account for time that has already elapsed.
7. Loftness (1984:48) says the same amount of uranium, used in a fast-breeder reactor, will provide 60 times as much energy as in a light-water reactor. Hafele (1990:142) says one hundred times as much.
8. According to a traditional interpretation, the four horses stand for war, famine pestilence, and the returned Christ. The original text (Revelations 6:2-8) is not so clear.
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