This is the dawning of the age of the SunCell, age of the SunCell.
Leeeeeet the sunshine. Leeeeeet the sunshine in! The suuuuuun shine in. 😀
Leeeeeet the sunshine. Leeeeeet the sunshine in! The suuuuuun shine in” (Whoooa let it shine! Coooom ooooon! All you Quantum Physicists just got it wrong!)
Leeeeeet the sunshine. Leeeeeet the sunshine in! The suuuuuun shine in. (I want you to siiiiing along with the There are no other dimensions!)
new information, indicators that the worm is turning, that the opponents of Randell Mills are facing an increasingly uphill battle, that grassroots knowledge is spreading. The reason I find the Schrödinger chapter of such relevance is the influence that this chapter had on me, concerning the origins of the quantum theory credited to Schrödinger, before I knew much of anything about Mills’ Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUTCP). The chapter is “Are there Quantum Jumps?” In this chapter, Schrödinger expresses grave concern that his QM has led the world astray, and what the consequences of such derangement may be, how long they may last, what the historical precedents are and what clues he finds for a true theory concerning atomic physics. He draws a strong parallel between the epicycles of Ptolemaic astronomy (an epitome of derision for any theory that is living way past its useful life) and quantum jumps, which require that the electron move from one energy state to another without ever having been in between states. Quantum jumps are a mathematical convenience, and is just one of the ways in which QM displays its non-physical character. He quotes Farrington (Greek Sciences) that “History is the most fundamental science…A great part of the mysticism and superstition of educated men consists of knowledge which has broken loose from its historical moorings,” and so unifying physics is a far greater concern than finding a theory to meet the exigencies of the day. This chapter of Schrödinger’s book was a mea culpa. What is concerning is that the book What Is Life? was recently reprinted. The publisher has a page listing the original publication date of 1944, which could lead one to infer that this is a republication of the original. However, this chapter—the salient point of the book, if you ask me—is missing from the reprint. (Why?!) Used copies of the edition I have are available for $20. Prices were much higher not long ago. Go figure. Then there is Thomas Stolper’s very informative gathering of information on a subject human whom he realized was quite outstanding: Randell Mills. The book has a couple of titles, with some difference. I can find one used copy of Genius Inventor for $1594. I’m still not selling mine. However, if Mr. Stolper is reading this, take this as a warning that someone will soon pirate your book for making some fast cash, and it will not be me. Please reprint it. Brett Holverstott knows already that his book, Randell Mills and the Search for Hydrino Energy, recently went out of stock on Amazon again, because he has remedied that problem already. The used price was climbing fast. Congratulation Brett. This is probably Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolution sort of book, that will sell through a great deal of reprinting. The audience is broad, thanks to Holverstott’s wide-ranging intellect. The understanding of the philosophical challenges that were faced by the scientists during the dawn of the Standard Theory of Quantum Mechanics that Holverstott explores in fine detail is invaluable. This is a book for laymen, and out of date, but the quickest way to get the big picture.
In the August report from Mills, 5 there is revealed much detail about an alternative path announced to the cPV SunCell, so there are actually three paths now. For any progress to be made on any of the three, the “autocell” must be reached (see p. 77 of the report, and Figure 5).
“One ‘journalist’ (ahem) who’s been following the story of Randell Mills and Brilliant Light Power is a gentleman by the name of Tom Whipple for Fall Church News Press. I thought Falls Church News would be some evangelical nut job American publication, but it turns out Falls Church is actually a small town in Virginia… … ten minutes drive from Langley…. and it also transpires that Tom Whipple is a thirty year veteran of the CIA, analyst in energy! 😀 … I think his wife was Virginia State Senator for the Democrat Party… anyhoo… it’s worth reading this guys articles.”
The Great Energy Transition: Fires, Floods, Fossil Fuels, & New Energy
August 17, 2018
By Tom Whipple
This summer we have been deluged with reports from every corner of the world concerning the devastation that fossil-fuel induced global warming is causing. Fires, floods, storms, crop failures, unbearable temperatures, and water shortages are occurring across the world, yet the consumption of fossil fuels continues to increase. While a handful of countries, mostly in Northern Europe, are taking serious steps to reduce the use of fossil fuels, the rest of the world is mostly in denial. These countries either believe there is not a fossil fuel/climate change problem or rank the need for economic growth ahead of the need to address climate change. Few are willing to admit that these goals are incompatible. Reductions in the use of fossil fuels by a sufficient amount to slow or stop global warming are fundamentally incompatible with current levels of economic activity. By its very nature, growing economic activity in today’s world requires more energy, 80 percent of which is currently coming from fossil fuels.
While the use of non-fossil fuel energy sources – wind, solar, tides, waves, hydro, nuclear, etc. – is increasing, the rate at which these sources of energy are replacing the still-growing use of fossil fuels is so low that climate-induced catastrophes seem more likely to increase than recede in coming decades. In short, large portions of humanity are between the proverbial rock and a hard place; either parts of our civilization are done-in by increasing harsh climate conditions, or we accept the economic hardships that mandated reductions in the use of fossil fuels would bring.
A corollary to major reductions in the use of fossil fuels would be the need for many new government policies and regulations controlling the use of fossil fuels. This is likely the main reason behind why the obvious reality of climate change has become so controversial in America. While the devastation caused by climate is increasing steadily, it has not yet reached the point where the overwhelming majority of our fellow citizens are willing to make economic and life-style sacrifices required to deal with what is likely to be an existential problem.
The only real solution on the horizon to this situation is to develop and deploy as soon as possible one or more new sources of energy, for the current major non-polluting sources – mostly wind and solar – have major deficiencies. Moreover, they are unlikely to grow fast enough to solve the underlying problem. For the last 50 years it has been widely believed that nuclear fusion of hydrogen would one day answer to the world’s energy problem; however, after decades and billions of dollars’ worth of research, a commercial product is nowhere in sight and seems unlikely to arrive in time to mitigate climate change.
For many years now, I have been following and reporting on the progress of two technologies that could (and I underline could) be the answer to global warming. Both these technologies offer the promise of non-polluting energy in unlimited quantities at a fraction of current costs. If these promises sound too good to be true, you have the reason why there is so much skepticism that these technologies could possibly be real. Both are based on new concepts that seem to conflict with currently accepted science. For many years there were rancorous disputes between the scientific community and those believing in the new technologies, but recently there has been a de facto truce with both sides simply ignoring each other.
The years of controversy have resulted in a situation where only a fully operational prototype that can be tested by outside laboratories will be enough to convince media and the scientific community that one or both of these technologies are real and are ready for the commercial market. We are not yet at that day, but it may be closer than most realize.
Our two technologies are Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) and the chemical “hydrino” reaction being developed by Brilliant Light Power up in New Jersey. While many laboratories around the world are working on the LENR reaction, so far as is known only the Italian inventor Andrea Rossi down in Florida claims to be close to installing the first LENR-based reactor for a commercial customer. The differences in transparencies between Rossi and Randell Mills who is developing the competitive hydrino technology is like night and day. For numerous reasons, Rossi is highly secretive about his technology, only responding to questions about his progress on his blog in one or at most a few words. For years, Mills has been releasing detailed information about the designs of his evolving devices and about 95 percent of the science and technology behind his reactors.
While Rossi and Mills have at times been overly optimistic about how fast they could develop their radically new technologies into commercial products, the underlying science used by both companies has been validated many times over the years by outside scientists. To any open-minded observer who has been following these technologies, there is no reason to believe that any fraud is involved and that there are valid energy-producing technologies behind the devices both scientists are trying to perfect.
In a recent post, Rossi says he has a contract to build a 40-megawatt (MW) heat producing plant and hopes to have the reactors ready for installation before the end of the year. As is usual with Rossi, there are no details as to where the reactors will be installed, who the customer is, or which of two devices Rossi has under development will be used for his first installation. Although the heat-producing reactors will be installed at the customer’s plant, they will be operated and maintained by Rossi’s employees. The customer will only receive the heat from the device and will have little or no access to the details of the reactor’s operation.
In contrast to Rossi’s secrecy, Mills of Brilliant Light Power has just published a quarterly update on his progress that contains much detail, including engineering drawings, about the progress his firm has made in the last three months. As some readers may recall, last year Mills switched his strategic direction from developing a device that would produce electricity to two separate devices. One of these would, like Rossi, produce only heat that would be used in buildings or for industrial processes. The new electricity generating device is to use the plasma created by the hydrino reaction to power a magnetohydrodynamic subsystem to produce electricity. The magnetohydrodynamic generator should be much cheaper than one using concentrated photovoltaic cells and can be scaled to larger sizes.
By switching strategic direction, Mills has delayed by months or years the day when he will bring a working device to market but may have a more reliable and cheaper-to-build product when the development is complete. The one major problem that Mills is still working to overcome is to modify the reactor module so that it will run continuously under computer control. Computer control is necessary to have a marketable product. Mills had hoped to have accomplished this goal last year, but it is turning out to be more difficult than anticipated. In the past six months, however, many changes to the design of the reactor have been made which hopefully will result in a fully automated system being available sometime soon.
It is important to remember just what is at stake in the development of these new energy-producing technologies. The global market for heat currently is about $8 trillion (with a “T”) a year. The global electricity market is on the order of $3.5 trillion. Both these impending technologies offer the promise of producing heat and electricity at a fraction of current costs once they can be made to work reliably. Should this be the case, all other forms of energy production could quickly become obsolete due to their much higher costs of production, not to mention the problem of global warming. Given their potential, it is amazing that they have not received more attention simply because they seem to be too good to be true or move our understanding of science ahead by a notch or two.
“The centre of strategic estimations and forecasts (further – the Center) is created in February, 2012 on the basis of creative group of the Russian scientists, is the Russian non-governmental organisation – the exploratory centre in the field of foreign policy and a security policy. The bulk of works of the centre (especially in the field of information security, problems of the informational society and modern military art) is connected with activity of one of founders of the Center, Dr. Grinjaev Sergey Nikolaevich. The legal status of the Center – the independent noncommercial organisation. It is founded by physical persons, citizens of the Russian Federation. The centre is the network scientifically-methodical organisation, and in the capacity of the basic form of the activity uses work in virtual network communities of experts.”
State “by hydrino”: the energy revolution that we missed
This event was long-awaited. Back in 2005 the scientific and the business community is disturbed by reports that a Randy mills, the head of the company Blacklight Power (BLP) has opened a new, virtually inexhaustible source of cheap energy, associated with the transfer of hydrogen in a new, previously unknown to science low-energy state called “hydrino”. “Financial times” in an article entitled “the Atomic bomb, rassypuha scientific world” is pretty accurately reflected the effect of the work of mills. He swung not only on energy, proposing a method of obtaining energy at a price one hundred times lower than the currently existing, but on the very foundations of modern physics and quantum mechanics.
“Nonsense,” said influential skeptics, “fractional quantum States of hydrogen atom”. The scientific world did not accept the work of mills, says Wikipedia. And yet to dismiss the sensation could not – after three years of his revolutionary theory was confirmed by practice: was built the first prototype of the reactor that worked on “fuel” from water, and in couple of months Blacklight Power has attracted investment of $ 60 million. In October 2008, “wall Street journal” told about a new company’s success – were built two reactors, 1 and 50 kilowatts, which have been successfully tested at the University of Rowan. Report on the testing of the plant, struck the scientific world, went to “si-EN-EN”.
What happened next, everyone knows the economic crisis broke out, and the young company had hard times. From 30 people in the company (which is more correctly called a private research Institute), left 22. However, as time went on, and appeared more and more work and development confirming the opening of the mills. Rose firms operating in the same direction: from California Brillouin, Leonardo Corp of Italian Andrea Rossi and Defkalion the Greek.
From cold fusion to LENR and hydrino
All of them, though not offer a “fuel from water” work in the same direction, which we often (and mistakenly) referred to as “cold fusion, and only sometimes – the English acronym LENR, “low energy nuclear reactions”, or “cold fusion”, i.e. “cold fusion”. After Fleischmann and Pons announced their discovery of the possibilities of cold fusion reactions, it has been 25 years, and much has changed – came a better understanding and more accurate terminology, and, finally, commercially viable technologies.
I must say, the enterprises working in the field of LENR has made remarkable progress. If the current sources of energy require significant investments, fixed costs, environmentally harmful, and organize themselves around powerful groups of specific interests, new sources of energy much cheaper and safer. For example, E-Cat Andrea Rossi with a capacity of 5 KW can fit on the table without emitting any greenhouse gases or radioactive waste and runs on fuel element, the size of the battery that should be replaced every weather.
Leonardo Corp recently sold the license to produce their plants firm Industrial Heat involved in the introduction of new technologies. In a special press release this company, issued January 24, says that the world needs a new, clean and efficient source of cheap energy. This technology will improve the standard of living in developing countries, and reduce pressure on the environment. “Our goal is to make this technology widely available.”
Competitors of Andrea Rossi also does not stand still. The California company Brillouin has signed several multimillion contracts for supply of its installations, including in South Korea. Given the well-known ability of residents of South-East Asia to adopt foreign technology, with no doubt protected by copyright, and energy hunger in China, the consequences of such transactions it is easy to predict.
However, despite all the successes of alternative energy, the scientific mainstream “in emphasis does not see” new technologies – the leading scientific journals of the West is still flatly refuse to accept for publication a scientific article, going in the wrong direction. This, in turn, increases konspirologichesky sentiment in public and suspicion of the existence of oil and gas mafia, actively lobbying for their interests among the scientific community. And these suspicions must be said, are not unfounded…
And again – the bombshell: BLP announced the demonstration on 28 January a new installation. At this time, the reactor power is a good 10 Megawatts, enough to light 10 thousand apartments. The orchestra presents a device installed and how it works. Published and patents to develop (they are in Russian language – “Method and device for converting matter into energy and energy into matter”, (Patent RU 2180458)).
The description of the essence of a patent can cause stuttering not only by professors of physics, but also school teachers of chemistry. “The invention relates to methods and apparatus for releasing energy from hydrogen atoms (molecules) as their electrons are impacted with a view to their transfer to lower energy levels, with smaller radii (smaller values of the major and minor semi-axes), rather than in the ground state (the so-called “hydrino” – ed.), by providing energy sinks or methods to remove energy resonant with the frequency emitted by the electron energy, with the aim to stimulate these transitions according to modern atomic theory.”
Whether the authors of the patent of the Russian poor inventors would not see them patent, as their ears. But Western secured and uncles had to make concessions, Tisnov in the text is completely unnecessary here, “according to modern atomic theory.” That’s the problem – in the modern theory of “hydrino” mills is not fit. He is the Creator of its own. In this theory it stands out among the theoretical developments of the creators of LENR technology. Apparently, the reaction in which the plants operate mills are not even to low-energy nuclear as a peculiar class of strong chemical reactions that were previously unknown.
Portrait of “Einstein of the 21st century”
It is impossible not to sympathize with the skeptics: shrug mills did not succeed because he is a prominent theoretical physicist. In 1999 he published a fundamental work on quantum mechanics – “unified theory of classical quantum mechanics”, and in 2011 – an impressive three-volume “the United theory of classical physics” (although it is not translated into Russian, but is in the public domain). However, when you cannot refute, it is possible not to pay attention – his work has the scientific world is trying hard not to notice.
The mills theory does not introduce any exotic essence of the “Higgs boson”. In fact, it relies on one new thing – the idea of the electron, which considers not point wave-particle, and particle of an infinite number of rotating spheres. How here not to remember worn in Soviet times, Lenin said that the electron is as inexhaustible as the atom. Amazing, but true – since Lenin’s idea of the electron has not changed. Starting from this modest starting point, and gradually developing it, a new theory solves a lot of problems, pursuing physics for decades – the so-called problem of the energy balance of the Sun, the problem of dark matter, and previously inexplicable moments in the spectra of radiation of atoms. Finally, the theory of mills restores to quantum mechanics the principle of causality, ridding it of the theory of probability and become literally a byword of corpuscular-wave dualism.
The prediction of a new, virtually inexhaustible source of cheap energy, it is a bonus of the new theory – but what! The value obtained when the hydrogen in hydrino energy is about 100 times lower than traditional technology, and the fuel source is ordinary water.
The Randall mills as little like a self-taught – he is a man with three degrees (the medic, chemist and electrical engineer) the most prestigious American universities – Harvard and mit. Definitely, he is one of the most knowledgeable people in the industry.
Last, but not least, it’s a human quality. To be honest, many prominent scientists and inventors were a people with a complex character that prevented them to realize their ideas. Fortunately, Randall mills was a man of friendly and sociable, and thanks to the Board of Directors of BLP gathered brilliant professionals with impeccable reputation. Among them – Michael Jordan, former CEO of Westinghouse, and Shelby brewer, chief nuclear scientist in the Reagan administration.
Unfortunately, in the perception of the scientific community even the most fruitful theories are no miracles – as was noted by Thomas Kuhn, theories replace each other only with the change of generations of scientists themselves. As science strives for novelty, in fact, no one really likes revolutionary theories. Given that the book mills theory, outlining the hypothesis of the existence of hydrino, was released in 1992, and experimental confirmation – in 2008, I would venture to suggest that at least a minimal chance for the Nobel prize he will appear not earlier than years through five.
The consequences of the energy revolution
Even with the big delay, but the information about breakthrough in the field of energy technology and entered the post-Soviet space. On 12 January published an open letter to a prominent journalist Maxim Kalashnikov President Putin, “We need nuclear project-2”.
“We will try to outline the threat to the Russian Federation of development in the world of this new “pocket” nuclear energy LENR. Do it for yourself, for your brains, citizen Putin, government officials and “academics”, count we cannot”, he writes.
In a rather colorful expressions Kalashnikov paints a picture of what is happening, coming to the conclusion that the coming “crash of the oil economy means the collapse and most dangerous crisis of countries such as Russia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf monarchies. (In Russia on the collapse of “Gazprom” and oil companies will overlap the collapse of Rosatom). Dramatically poorer Islamic world, will cease feeding his extremism and terrorism oil sheikhs. In the Islamic world will start a split, catching a dangerous distemper, it will start to collapse entire countries. Russia, which has sharply reduced budget, can also fall apart, clearly having lost Ukraine and Belarus”.
Note one caveat – Kalashnikov does not speak about the opportunities physics mills, and it not only radically cheaper energy technologies, and new materials, engines, transportation, communications (including underwater), arms (ultraviolet lasers), heavy duty battery, corrosion-resistant coating, a milestone in the development of electronics and space exploration.
And that’s not all. Following the scientific and technological boom and economic boom is inevitable, and powerful social shifts. The energy is power. Decentralization of energy sources threatens not only the oil and gas mafia, it threatens to deprive the ruling elite rather significant part of its political power. The energy revolution will inevitably lead to social revolution.
It seems that it is the last circumstance most of all frightens the ruling circles – how else to explain that the last quarter of a century the development of new technologies was carried out in the absence of state funding and the active opposition of the scientific establishment? But if the republics of the former Soviet Union the development of technology and science was able to completely stop and to exsanguinate in the United States this has not happened – a quarter of a century “corruption” resulted in large-scale “underground fire” that threatens to bubble up, and absorbing the scientific establishment and the ruling elite.
“Shakespeare walks into a pub. Barman says ‘You can’t come in here… YOU’RE BARD!'” 😀
I’ll post a number of articles from various sources in the coming weeks, detailing the history of Dr Randell Mills, the development of his theory and work, the unfortunate loss of his moustache, but also the development of Mills’ business Brilliant Light Power (formerly Blacklight Power). This article also highlights the resistance Mills has faced from his peers and the physics establishment in general since the beginning, some of which in my view is often borderline slander and irrelevant to a scientific debate.
The following appeared in Village Voice on Dec 21st 1999, entitled Quantum Leap (remember that show? “Ziggy says!”) authored by Erik Baard, who I will mention in later posts. “Ziggy says there’s a 98.6% chance Quantum Mechanics will be disproven in the 21st century!”
by Erik Baard
December 21, 1999
Times are tough on Robert Mills Sr.’s 91-acre grain farm in Chester County, Pennsylvania. “This year is very, very bad,” he confides. “I’m glad the kids got out.”
His eldest, Robert Jr., has a water well drilling business, his daughter Raeleen is a massage therapist. And his younger son, Randell, recently bought a 53,000-square-foot space satellite manufacturing plant near Princeton, New Jersey, from Lockheed Martin. He then stocked it with millions of dollars of high-tech gear. Here the younger Mills plans to overturn quantum theory as it’s been understood for decades.
Randell Mills, a Harvard-trained medical doctor who also studied biotechnology and electric engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says he’s found the Holy Grail of physics: a unified theory of everything. A central part of Mills’s theory explains the basis of the traditional, and paradoxical, “duality” concept of the electron as both a particle and a wave with a model where electrons are charges that travel as two-dimensional disks and wrap around nuclei like fluctuating soap bubbles. He calls them “orbitspheres.”
Mills says that with this new understanding he’s produced clean and limitless energy and an entirely new class of materials and plasma that will reshape every industry in the coming decade. Mills also claims breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, cosmology, medicine, and perhaps even a form of gravitational jujitsu.
“I’ve made the electron real,” the 42-year-old Mills says. “It’s a revolution very fitting to the 21st century, in a chain of revolutions man has had with fire, steel, fossil fuels, and Maxwell’s description of electromagnetism. This is grandiose stuff, and when I say it, it delivers a beating from critics. But on the other hand it’s fun.”
Though the topics he broaches could be coming from a B-movie mad scientist, Mills’s cadences are more often like those of a motivational speaker. He moves his six-foot-five frame with athletic ease and drives a BMW sports car. He and his wife, an investment banker, have two young sons and another child due in March.
His company, BlackLight Power Inc., formed in 1991, expects to receive in January patents on the energy and chemicals, which Mills says derive from “shrinking” the hydrogen atom’s orbitsphere. BlackLight Power, with a research staff of 25, will submit its findings to premier scholarly journals by that time, he adds.
Despite howls from the scientific establishment that Mills is a relic of the “cold fusion” trend quashed a decade ago, BlackLight Power Inc. has raised more than $25 million from about 150 investors. While that’s hardly a huge sum in this Internet-crazed era, it’s coming from serious money and energy people. Prominent among them are multibillion-dollar electric utilities PacifiCorp, based in Oregon, and Conectiv, which serves Mid-Atlantic states. RS Funds, Eastbourne Capital Management, and executives retired from the top echelon of Morgan Stanley have also put in millions. With Mills holding on to controlling shares, BlackLight Power now is turning away private investors.
“I’m impressed with how Randy’s gone about this,” a retired Morgan Stanley executive says, “with experiments to test the theory at every step. And the potential payoff is almost unimaginable.”
Conectiv senior vice president David Blake concurs: “We’re past the scientific verification stage. The talk now is about commercial applications,” perhaps within seven years, he says. Blake sits on the BlackLight Power board of directors.
Morgan Stanley Dean Witter & Co. is considering a public offering of BlackLight Power stock in 2000. The investment bank says that the two chief needs that will trigger an IPO are a licensing agreement with a “household name company” and more substantial academic validation of its technologies. BlackLight Power is in discussions with DaimlerChrysler, and three major corporations are already examining materials it has produced, say Mills and company executives.
In the next year, Mills promises, the revolution will be “hydrinoized.”
In one of BlackLight Power’s cavernous laboratories sits the prototype energy-and chemical-producing cell that is the heart of Mills’s ambitions. Mills explains that in this contraption, resembling a souped-up home furnace, water is electrically then catalytically broken down into atoms of oxygen and hydrogen. Potassium atoms are introduced as a gas into the very low-pressure hydrogen gas waiting inside the cell. Under specific conditions, the potassium acts as a catalyst to collapse hydrogen’s electron orbit. The energy once used to maintain the higher orbit is released as ultra-violet light, Mills says.
The heat from that process can build pressure to turn a turbine for a generator or an engine, BlackLight Power notes in a marketing plan. The smaller hydrogen atoms, called “hydrinos,” remaining in the cell can then react with other elements placed there to form novel compounds with amazing properties, Mills claims. “This will change how most everyday things in the 21st century are made and used,” he says. For example:
EHydrinos combined with inorganic elements produce conductive, magnetic plastics that would revolutionize circuitry and aerospace engineering, and shrink and speed up semiconductors.
EHydrinos combined with highly oxygenated matter would form the basis of batteries the size of a briefcase to drive your car 1000 miles at highway speeds on a single charge, without gasoline.
EOne type of hydrino combined with an acid would produce incredibly powerful explosives or rocket propellants.
EHydrino and metal compounds make for super-strong coatings, some of which could make ships rustproof, dramatically reducing crew complements.
There are “millions and millions of possible combinations” in the commercial world, Mills says, revealing himself as a practical, earthy businessman.
These qualities emerged in his teens when he made good money raising corn and hay on land he leased. He had no college plans, and skipped so many high school classes his diploma was in doubt. But when he sliced up his hand and arm in an accident falling into a glass door, the five hours of surgery rattled his sense of immortality.
“At that point,” Mills recalls, “I figured if I’m going to die eventually, I’d like to at least know why. I wanted to know how it works. All of it, from the human brain to the universe.”
He used profits from the farm to cover the tuition at Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he graduated first in his class. After that he breezed through medical school at Harvard University, while simultaneously taking science courses at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The son of a farmer, and a farmer himself, turned out to be an academic superstar.
“It’s the American story,” says Dr. Robert Park of the American Physical Society. “But he’s still wrong.”
Park has concluded that the hydrino theory is wrong in his upcoming book, Voodoo Science: The Road From Foolishness to Fraud. Park is not alone is being rankled by hydrinos. The hydrogen atom is the simplest, most common, and most tested element. It’s nearly universally agreed that a free-floating hydrogen atom is in what’s called “the ground state”—you can’t bring its electron closer into its nucleus. Telling physicists that they’ve got that wrong is like telling mothers across America that they’ve misunderstood apple pie. It’s that fundamental.
“If you could fuck around with the hydrogen atom, you could fuck around with the energy process in the sun. You could fuck around with life itself,” claims Dr. Phillip Anderson, a Nobel laureate in physics at Princeton University. “Everything we know about everything would be a bunch of nonsense. That’s why I’m so sure that it’s a fraud.”
Dr. Michio Kaku, a theoretical physicist based at City University of New York, adds that “the only law that this business with Mills is proving is that a fool and his money are easily parted.” Kaku is a cofounder of “string”-field theory, which posits that all matter and energy are actually manifestations of vibrations occurring in 11 dimensions. String-field theory, considered radical when it was introduced, is now pretty much the only game in town for mainstream physicists seeking a grand unified theory.
BlackLight Power boosters scoff that they’ve seen no practical application of quantum theory since the atomic bomb and nuclear power, and say they have little time for theorists who call Mills a charlatan while teaching that the fundamental mechanics of cause and effect are subverted at the subatomic level. Mills’s camp responds: Fraud? Let’s talk about fraud. Quantumists have us living in myriad dimensions filled with “probability waves” and unobservable “virtual particles” that flit in and out of existence, and they say we may one day slip through wormholes in space to visit other universes or go back in time.
Kaku insists that such seemingly far-out visions direct us toward truths we can’t yet see, whereas Mills, Kaku contends, is promoting something already shown to be impossible.
“I’ll have demonstrated an entirely new form of energy production by the end of 2000,” Mills responds. “If Dr. Kaku has escaped our universe through a wormhole by then, I’ll send my first $1000 in profits to his new address.”
And there’s the nub, Mills’s critics also charge. They’re talking the scientific method, and he’s already spending his profits.
“The history of science in America since money became so easily available to people making outrageous claims has gotten very complicated,” says Dr. Robert Cava, a materials science expert at Princeton. “Scientists are constantly in competition and constantly under extreme scrutiny. Don’t think it’s a picnic. So when someone comes along and makes a big splash without going through the rigors of peer review, it makes us think that the guy has no business doing it.”
Dr. Richard Wilson, a research professor of physics at Harvard who says he’s still skeptical of Mills’s theory after a visit to BlackLight Power’s labs, says the culture clash between scientists and captains of industry is natural.
“In my experience in science,” Wilson says, “no one’s more gullible than the wildcatter in the oil industry. But they’re both gullible and successful. Sometimes they happen to be right. They take chances. That’s their game, but that’s not what scientists usually do.”
The booming stock market of the 1990s has loosed a torrent of cash in all industries, but wallets have been especially fat in the U.S. utility industry in the last couple of years since that $215 billion business began deregulating. States have pushed electric companies to sell power plants to new competitors at open auctions. The result: In addition to coal, they have cash to burn.
A chunk of that money has been earmarked for new energy alternatives to fossil fuels, reflecting mounting concerns about global warming that have coalesced with long-standing unease with North American, European, and East Asian dependency on unstable regions for oil supplies. In the political climate of the U.S. at least, nuclear power isn’t an option.
Of course popular “green,” or environmentally sensitive, energy sources like solar, wind, and small-scale hydroelectric power don’t require revisions to science textbooks. Mills says BlackLight Power is moving first on the energy and materials front, even though he’s more credentialed in medicine, mostly because there are fewer regulatory hassles.
Out back behind Mills’s laboratories is what is essentially a 150-ton thermos that he says will be the core of his first power plant. Lockheed Martin used it to test satellite components for the cold vacuum of space. But shielding on its one-inch-thick skin could also hold in heat produced by banks of Mills’s cells placed inside. Old power plants could be retrofitted with BlackLight Power reactors, which would produce no emissions or hazardous waste, Mills says.
Conectiv has the right to license the BlackLight power process to make electricity, David Blake says. Another board member is Shelby Brewer, former chairman and CEO of ABB Combustion Engineering, a leading maker of power plants and nuclear fuel. Brewer has a Ph.D. in nuclear engineering from MIT, and was a top nuclear official in the Department of Energy during the Reagan administration.
“I think he has something here worth taking forward commercially,” says Brewer, who now has his own energy company. But even those who say they’ve gotten positive results from testing Mills’s energy cells stop short of endorsing his theory.
Dr. Johannes Conrads, former director of the Institute for Low Temperature Plasma Physics at Ernst Moritz Arndt University in Greifswald, Germany, told a gathering of the American Chemical Society in October that he was able to produce “remarkably high energy” from a Mills cell. But Conrads said he thought the energy could be coming from an effect within dense regions of plasma produced through the BlackLight Power process.
Dr. John A. Spitznagel, chief scientist for Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp.’s science and technology center in Pittsburgh, says that several years ago he too was intrigued by energy he was getting from a Mills cell, but that it wasn’t enough to pursue at that time. But he remains “in a sort of monitoring mode” should Mills return with further verifications and the more refined approach that BlackLight Power claims to have developed.
Despite many qualms about the hydrino theory, Spitznagel says that he believes Mills “speaks with honesty and conviction.” Spitznagel notes that one reason Mills didn’t pursue further energy work with Siemens Westinghouse was that BlackLight Power focused for a time on the novel compounds Mills was producing.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration scientists were also encouraged that the Mills cell seemed to be producing energy, but they couldn’t rule out alternatives to the hydrino effect as the cause, says Dr. Janis Niedra of NASA’s Glenn Research Center. Niedra broke with many other scientists in a letter following an interview, writing that while Mills’s theory butts up against popular interpretations of quantum mechanics, “in fact, however, quantum mechanics may permit such [hydrino electron] levels.”
If Mills is right, Niedra wrote, “not only would such transitions give off hard UV light, but also the probability of room temperature nuclear fusion of the shrunken hydrogen, or deuterium, atoms would be greatly increased. The continuation of such processes to higher atomic numbers would of course emulate the power generation of a star! Considering the potential value of a new energy source, it seems worthwhile to restudy the Mills [proto]type cell in configurations allowing an accurate account for recombination and water loss.”
When two nuclei are forced to fuse under high temperatures and pressures, copious amounts of energy are released. It’s the power behind the hydrogen bomb and the sun. But two generations of physicists have failed to master nuclear fusion despite the billions of government dollars sunk into it.
Attempts to achieve cold fusion, the same result without adding great heat and pressure, have been given the cold shoulder since 1989 when two chemists in Salt Lake City cried “Eureka!” in the media but then couldn’t provide others with a systematic way of reproducing their claims. The backlash was so virulent that government and university research grant writers run from anything that smacks of cold fusion.
Mills is adamant that his work is unrelated to cold fusion, even as diehards in the field attempt to claim him as their own. Dr. Charles Haldeman says he also was tripped up in cold-fusion phobia after he produced excess energy from several variations of a Mills cell while a senior staff member at the Air Force’s MIT-managed Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts.
“I got pretty good gain compared to the power I was putting in. The effect wasn’t as large as Mills was getting, but it was in the direction that was predicted,” Haldeman says. Because the results were smaller than he’d hoped, which he now says may have been due to contaminated materials, he wasn’t in a position to fight management when funding was stopped.
“They said, ‘There must be some other error that you’re not including,’ but I couldn’t figure out what it might be and neither could they,” Haldeman says. “This area is clearly not well understood. There’s clearly incontrovertible evidence that there’s something going on in the work of Mills and others that certainly deserves further study. It’s a tragedy that the politics of cold fusion has prevented science from taking its course.”
Michael Jacox, assistant director of Texas A&M’s Commercial Space Center for Engineering and a nuclear engineer, says he felt compelled to study the Mills cell in relative secrecy when he was a research scientist for the Department of Energy. While at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Jacox says he read about the Mills cell and decided in 1991 to perform independent experiments along with electrochemical experts on staff in battery development.
“We actually purchased a total of three large electrolytic cells and conducted very controlled experiments,” Jacox says. “We followed the protocols Randy suggested and followed his technique and we got the same results he had,” Jacox says. “We were encouraged but we determined that what we had was probably not sufficient to break a news release, especially with [cold fusion] going sour so soon before.”
The team began more thorough testing, Jacox says, including side-by-side comparisons of catalyzed cells and control cells, when his bosses suddenly balked.
“In the middle of that process there was a management decision that said we should pull the plug on the whole project and not disclose that we had been involved in the project at all,” Jacox says. The team decided to instead investigate hydrino compounds in “almost a clandestine operation.”
“We probably have hundreds of different projects going on at all times, and this isn’t one I was aware was going on,” says John Walsh, a spokesman for the Idaho lab.
Researchers at other well-known government labs also say they are afraid to speak on record about their interest in Mills’s work. One said that he plans to visit BlackLight Power on his vacation time. Jacox says his team found in the materials “an anomaly that we could not explain with conventional theory but that we could explain with Randy Mills’s theory. That does not necessarily validate the Mills theory, but gosh.”
Jacox continued to be frustrated by the proscription against testing Mills cells, “so I left the lab in large measure because of that.”
Applied scientists have a rigorous standard in their work that is sometimes referred to as the Kmart Test. In other words, can the research at hand lead to an off-the-shelf product? By this criterion, the materials wing of BlackLight Power has great potential. Energy is a messy thing to measure, but as Mills says, “the good thing about materials is that they exist, or they don’t. There’s no argument.”
BlackLight Power’s marketing people say they expect far more profits from compounds than from the energy released by hydrinos. The energy portion could even be seen as a mere spin-off of the chemical manufacturing that should simply be used, rather than wasted. Even the unpersuaded Professor Wilson of Harvard offers, “Maybe he hasn’t found the gold of a grand unified theory, but there could be some silver there” in the hydrino compounds.
Tests at Lehigh University are interesting, confirms Dr. Alfred Miller, a senior research scientist there who has tested BlackLight Power’s compounds. Miller probed the energy levels of the atoms by bombarding them with X rays and measuring the energy of the electrons leaving the atoms—a technique called X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. “I try and exhaust all possibilities and there really aren’t an enormous number of conventional explanations” for what he found.
Miller emphasizes that he didn’t want his tests being interpreted as unequivocally confirming the hydrino theory, but “over the years I haven’t really come across too many things that haven’t been explainable. At least if you thought about it long enough and hard enough.”
Because Mills has produced freely available physical materials and has been “incredibly more open in getting people to confirm what his hypothesis predicts . . . this is not the equivalent of cold fusion,” Miller says. “He’s serious and honest. . . . He may well have ventured upon something.”
Ricerca Inc.’s lab east of Cleveland was similarly flummoxed by what it found when studying BlackLight Power’s materials. “They were inorganic compounds that have organic properties. That is unusual,” says Dr. Yong-Xi Li, manager of Ricerca’s advanced mass spectrometry lab. “We totally don’t know what’s going on. The reason is that I’ve never seen before these kinds of properties in all my career. Probably we have to do more work.”
The BlackLight Power research has excited the U.S. Navy, but the company isn’t entirely thrilled with that. “It’s kind of like letting a lion loose in the building,” Mills remarks. “You have to remember that their goal is to find better ways of killing. But there are worse militaries [than that of the U.S.] out there.”
Board members have another concern about getting too deeply involved with the armed forces. Some say they fear that the military could “black out” the project, making it a national security secret. That would deprive the company of other commercial prospects.
The issue came up at a BlackLight Power board meeting, according to sources. Executives at the meeting urged Mills to refer to energetic materials as potential propellants, and not explosives, even though a rocket is just a controlled explosion. One source says Mills bridled at the inherent intellectual dishonesty in the euphemism.
“That would be as if I pointed a duck gun at you and said not to worry, because it only kills ducks,” Mills reportedly said.
BlackLight Power and researchers at the weapons division of the Naval Air Warfare Center at China Lake, California, confirm that they are heading toward a research and development pact that would allow the navy to produce energy and materials from hydrinos and to develop applications of the new compounds. A spokeswoman for the Indian Head Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Maryland says in ane-mail letter that after a meeting with Mills “there was considerable interest in the reported properties of the new hydrogen-containing compounds, and in obtaining samples for independent analysis and evaluation.”
BlackLight Power’s newest board member is retired vice admiral Michael P. Kalleres, who commanded the U.S. fleet in the Atlantic during the Gulf War and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s Striking Fleet. He’s also a consultant for the Defense Science Board and the Naval Studies Board of the National Academy of Science.
“I feel very confident in what [Mills] has created,” Kalleres says. He adds that he has no investment in BlackLight Power and takes no salary from the company, although he anticipates an option to invest later. After observing the company’s practices for years, he believes that it’s produced things of which the military should make use.
Ships with hydrino material cladding would likely be stealthy and rustproof, Kalleres says. Eliminating rust could radically reduce crews on some ships, savings millions of dollars.
It’s not just BlackLight Power’s work in bombs, rockets, and rusty ships that has the military’s attention. Mills has stacks of proprietary research on artificial intelligence. In what he calls Brain Child Systems, Mills has done the math for a reasoning machine with consciousness. To advance the project, Mills may soon enter into a collaboration with the Institute for Simulation and Training at the University of Central Florida, which does the bulk of its work for the military.
But Mills wasn’t thinking of the military when he began his work in artificial intelligence. Mills has a lifelong dream of making spaceships to travel at near light speed, and he says that only a mind with the switching rates of a computer could pilot them. A human brain, which Mills disdains as “wet processing,” would fly into a rock before its owner could blink.
If spaceships are to hit such speeds, NASA scientists agree that rockets are a dead end. Mills says the answer may again lie in the electron, which according to his theory might be made to respond negatively to gravity. He quickly emphasizes that this part of his work awaits experimentation, and he has kept quiet about it so far because he’s quite aware of how his critics will ridicule it. Mills is uncharacteristically coy in referring to the antigravity machine as a “relativity device.”
There was a moment when it seemed NASA engineers might look into Mills’s antigravity theory. Luke Setzer, a mechanical engineer at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida requested permission to investigate the idea’s potential. Setzer says as a mechanical engineer, he’s more intuitively comfortable with Mills’s deterministic view of the universe.
Engineers, he says, “are used to classical physics. Mills applies classical physics to the subatomic level.” Setzer was encouraged by his two managers to pursue the work, but after NASA physicists objected, “I dropped the whole thing.” Without their nod, there would be no funding. “One of them kept referring to ‘fictional energy’ rather than theoretical energy” after glancing at Mills’s self-published thousand-page tome, The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Quantum Mechanics (1995), Setzer says. “That kind of language tells me they’re already shutting their minds to possibilities.”
Setzer also plans to visit BlackLight Power’s labs on his vacation time. “I think he’s a real Renaissance man,” Setzer says. “And even if reality is different than his theory, it could still be another source of energy. The Mills theory may accurately predict previously inexplicable phenomena. That doesn’t mean that he’s right, but string theory seems less well defined than Mills’s theory yet is more accepted than Mills’s.”
Marc Millis, who is leading NASA’s Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, says that a major reason for not pursuing BlackLight Power projects is that tight budgets dictate that administrators approach ideas with a triage mind-set. “If someone else has the funds to get behind an idea, why should we redouble that?” he asks. “We have to use our resources for things that look promising and we know we’ll have to do for ourselves.”
The craft Mills imagines would be made of hydrino compounds and powered by hydrino engines and batteries. There would be pods containing intersecting helium and electron beams under a negatively charged plate. The electrons in the beam would be deformed in such a way that they would oppose gravity and push up against that electric field of the negative plate, Mills theorizes. Anything attached to the plate would also experience lift.
Every part of the craft, except the electrons, is still subject to gravity. “Once you’ve got it up, what would you use to travel horizontally?” Mills asks.
Mills gently waves that solution away. “Too inelegant. Try a flywheel to play off angular momentum,” he suggests, “and the craft itself would act as an airfoil.”
Yes, that would be a flying saucer.
The universe his flying saucers would explore was not made in six days nor in a big bang, Mills says.
“The Big Bang is not a theory. It’s a fact,” Dr. Michio Kaku claimed at a recent lecture at the New York Public Library.
Mills argues that the universe is forever oscillating between matter and energy over thousand-billion-year cycles, expanding and contracting between finite set points. In fact, he says, the universe doesn’t get much smaller than it is now.
His theory predicted in clear language two recent astronomical discoveries—one, the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, and, two, there are stars that measure as older than the expansion of the universe itself.
He also says hydrinos explain several mysteries about the sun and are the unidentified “dark matter” that astrophysicists say makes up most of the universe. Mills sees the conversion of matter into energy as the engine of universal expansion. Einstein and others showed that a mass creates a dimple in space-time. As that mass burns itself out, throwing off energy, that dimple formed by gravity is smoothed, causing the universe to expand, Mills explains.
“The sun is turning matter into energy every second; that forces the universe to expand,” Mills says. “Even, in the tiniest way, the chemical reactions in your body are pushing the universe out.”
Eventually all of this action expends itself until the universe becomes a giant cloud of photons that begin to gather into themselves to create matter again.
“You’re existing, maintaining your internal order as a life-form, at the expense of your surroundings. The more you do to keep yourself as you are, in that order, a being as opposed to inanimate matter, the universe is going to decay at a faster rate. Eventually your borrowed time runs out and then it’s dust to dust,” Mills says. “It’s sad, but that unfortunately is how it is.
“It’s a beautiful thing that we can exist the way that we do for the time that we do and people should appreciate it,” he says.
Does it all start over again in exactly the same way, as some religions teach? Is there a God?
Mills is at first curt. “That can’t be experimentally tested, so I won’t speculate on it.” But then he adds, “There are some questions science will never answer. That’s where you have faith.”