I have a Psilocybe cubensis ‘Golden Teacher’ mushroom grow kit on order! 😀 I’m the king of growing mushrooms!
I’ve only done mushrooms a handful of times. The first time … … … … … well I took about 75g of fresh ‘Amazon’ cubensis in one go! I blended them up with water, lemon and lime juice, drunk it all in one sitting… … … when I say I was ‘away with the faeries’, I was actually dancing around my kitchen with fucking faeries! 😀 (after having one of the most amazing orgasms of my life)
“Wow!” “Fucking ‘wow’ is not the word!”
Yeah anyway. I’m thinking, I’m going to do a mega mushroom trip (‘Golden Teacher’), 100g, 150g? 🙂 … and I’m going to meditate on GUTCP. See what happens!
One thing I’m contemplating is… I no longer subscribe to the ‘Big Bang’ theory of creation (it’s a dead theory, and most physicist know it)… an Oscillating Universe is much more beautiful, it fits with what we know of spacetime and matter… … an Oscillating Universe, eternally expanding and contracting every 450 billion years… energy being converted into matter during expansion phase, pushing the Universe out in every direction… matter being converted to energy during contraction phase, shrinking the Universe back in on itself… ‘reversing the arrows of time'(whatever the fuck that means? :/) … … Some people already see a problem with an ‘eternally oscillating universe’… … WHAT THE FUCK PUT THAT INTO PLACE? What’s outside the boundaries of such a model? How can something have existed forever, and will continue to exist forever?
Also I have some questions regarding dark matter! 137 lower states of hydrogen atom? Other elements of the periodic table? Does that mean 137 potential dimensions or other realms, that we cannot see or experience (UNLESS! :D)… …
I SHALL CONSULT THE SHROOMS! (I’ll only end up wanking one out, and dancing around with god damn faeries again!)
‘The Spirit Molecule’… the most powerful psychedelic compound known to humans! 😀
My interest (aside from taking the stuff in the form of Ayahuasca) is… 😀 You know what’s coming!
Millsian Inc. The Future of Molecular Modelling Millsian, Inc., is the future of molecular modeling. Utilizing a new classical approach to solving atoms and molecules, our software will help researchers design the next generation of pharmaceuticals. Millsian, Inc. is dedicated to developing the molecular modeling applications of The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUT-CP), solving atomic and molecular structures by applying the classical laws of physics (Newton’s and Maxwell’s Laws) to the atomic scale. The functional groups of all major classes of chemical bonding, including those involved in most organic molecules, have been solved exactly in closed-form solutions. By using these functional groups as building blocks, or independent units, a potentially infinite number of molecules can be solved. As a result, Millsian software can visualize the exact three-dimensional structure and calculate physical characteristics of almost any molecule of any length and complexity. While previous software based on traditional quantum methods resorted to approximations and required super computers for even simple systems, Millsian software requires no special expertise to solve complex proteins and DNA on a personal computer. The Millsian competitive advantage includes rendering true molecular structures providing precise bonding characteristics, spatial and temporal charge distributions, and energies of every electron in every bond and bonding atom, facilitating the identification of biologically active sites in drugs; and facilitating drug design. The Company believes that this represents a major breakthrough in material science that has the potential to impact nearly all businesses involved in drug development and chemistry.
In the past few years, thrill-seekers from Hollywood, Silicon Valley and beyond have been travelling to South America to take part in so-called Ayahuasca retreats. Their goal: to partake in a brewed concoction made from a vine plant Banisteriopsis caapi, traditionally used by indigenous people for sacred religious ceremonies. Drinkers of Ayahuasca experience short-term hallucinogenic episodes many describe as life-changing.
The active ingredient responsible for these psychedelic visions is a molecule called dimethyltryptamine (DMT). For the first time, a team led by Michigan Medicine has discovered the widespread presence of naturally-occurring DMT in the mammalian brain. The finding is the first step toward studying DMT— and figuring out its role—within the brains of humans.
“DMT is not just in plants, but also can be detected in mammals,” says Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., of the Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology. Her interest in DMT came about accidentally. Before studying the psychedelic, her research focused on melatonin production in the pineal gland.
In the seventeenth century, the philosopher Rene Descartes claimed that the pineal gland, a small pinecone-shaped organ located deep in the center of the brain, was the seat of the soul. Since its discovery, the pineal gland, known by some as the third eye, has been shrouded in mystery. Scientists now know it controls the production of melatonin, playing an important role in modulating circadian rhythms, or the body’s internal clock. However, an online search for notes to include in a course she was teaching opened Borjigin’s eyes to a thriving community still convinced of the pineal gland’s mystical power.
The core idea seems to come from a documentary featuring the work of researcher Rick Strassman, Ph.D. with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. In the mid-1990s, he conducted an experiment in which human subjects were given DMT by IV injection and interviewed after its effects wore off. In a documentary about the experiment, Strassman claims that he believed the pineal gland makes and secretes DMT.
“I said to myself, ‘wait, I’ve worked on the pineal gland for years and have never heard of this,'” she said. She contacted Strassman, requesting the source of his statement. When Strassman admitted that it was just a hypothesis, Borjigin suggested they work together to test it. “I thought if DMT is an endogenous monoamine, it should be very easy to detect using a fluorescence detector.”
Using a process in which microdialysis tubing is inserted into a rat brain through the pineal gland, the researchers collected a sample that was analyzed for—and confirmed—the presence of DMT. That experiment resulted in a paper published in 2013.
However, Borjigin was not satisfied. Next, she sought to discover how and where DMT was synthesized. Her graduate student, Jon Dean, lead author of the paper, set up an experiment using a process called in situ hybridization, which uses a labeled complementary strand of DNA to localize a specific RNA sequence in a tissue section.
“With this technique, we found brain neurons with the two enzymes required to make DMT,” says Borjigin. And they were not just in the pineal gland.
“They are also found in other parts of the brain, including the neocortex and hippocampus that are important for higher-order brain functions including learning and memory.”
The results are published in the journal Scientific Reports.
Her team’s work has also revealed that the levels of DMT increase in some rats experiencing cardiac arrest. A paper published in 2018 by researchers in the U.K. purported that DMT simulates the near death experience, wherein people report the sensation of transcending their bodies and entering another realm. Borjigin hopes to probe further to discover the function of naturally occurring levels of DMT in the brain—and what if any role it plays in normal brain functions.
“We don’t know what it’s doing in the brain. All we’re saying is we discovered the neurons that make this chemical in the brain, and they do so at levels similar to other monoamine neurotransmitters.”
Humans have cultivated a complicated relationship with DMT, labeling it as both a dangerous drug and “the spirit molecule.” Now, a growing body of evidence shows that mammals’ brains may manufacture significant amounts of DMT all on their own, indicating that we may be even more intimately tied to the molecule than we thought.
In a paper published Thursday in the journal Scientific Reports, a team of scientists at the University of Michigan shows that the mammal brain has the tools it needs to manufacture DMT. The evidence that the mammal brain is capable of making its own DMT is “very strong in rats and humans,” the study’s corresponding author Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., tells Inverse.
Do We Produce Endogenous DMT?
The idea that mammal brains produce endogenous DMT can be traced to Rick Strassman, M.D. As a clinical psychiatrist at the University of New Mexico, Strassman ran a series of experiments in the 1990s that led to his book (and later documentary) DMT: The Spirit Molecule, in which he proposed that DMT can be naturally secreted by the brain’s pineal gland in high enough quantities to induce mystical experiences.
In her new work, Borjigin argues there’s evidence we do indeed produce enough DMT to be biologically relevant.
“DMT is naturally made and released in mammalian brains at the levels sufficient to contribute to brain functions,” she says. The key, though, is that she believes it’s not only the pineal gland that’s responsible for DMT manufacturing.
In this paper, Borjigin and her team describe the results of an experiment in which they induced cardiac arrest in rats and then measured the levels of two chemicals involved in the synthesis of DMT. The researchers also examined brain tissues from human cadavers for these chemicals. They note that the human brains contained one of them, while the rat brains contained two of the enzymes that are required to make DMT, not only in the pineal gland, but also in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. Unlike Strassman’s work suggests, she believes that it’s probably not the pineal gland driving DMT synthesis in rat brains.
“DMT synthesis was thought to take place outside of the brain, but we show the presence of DMT synthetic enzymes in the brain; in fact our data suggest DMT production is most likely from non-pineal cells of the brain,” she explains.
DMT and the Near Death Experience
Armed with the idea that the brain has the tools it needs to manufacture DMT, Borjigin also set out to investigate one of Strassman’s bigger claims: that DMT has strong ties to the psychological experiences that accompany death, or close brushes with it. Her work was done in mice, but there has been recent, ongoing work that focuses on humans. DMT is naturally made and released in mammalian brains at the levels sufficient to contribute to brain functions.”
What we do know is that when humans are injected with DMT it can induce out-of-body sensations. One human study illustrating that effect was released in August 2018 in Frontiers in Psychology. That paper found that people who received DMT injections had experiences that bore strong similarities to those reported by people who had actual near death experiences, including the sensation of transcending their body.
Borjigin’s paper is primarily a rat study, so there are no anecdotal accounts of transcendence. But she did note that some rats showed surges in the levels of DMT in their brains when they experienced cardiac arrest, which was induced by the researchers as part of the experiment. Crucially, this happened even in rats whose pineal gland had been removed.
“DMT rises in a subset of rats during cardiac arrest, but not in all rats,” she notes, suggesting the need for further study to figure out why only some expressed the molecule.
It’s a long way to connect the dots between human experiences of death and a spike in DMT in the brains of rats experiencing heart failure. Borjigin’s work is intended to push the needle a bit further along on an idea that once seemed outlandish: Rat brains, at least, have all the tools to manufacture DMT on their own, though it’s still a mystery as to what actually happens once the process gets going.
Abstract: N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a psychedelic compound identified endogenously in mammals, is biosynthesized by aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and indolethylamine-N-methyltransferase (INMT). Whether DMT is biosynthesized in the mammalian brain is unknown. We investigated brain expression of INMT transcript in rats and humans, co-expression of INMT and AADC mRNA in rat brain and periphery, and brain concentrations of DMT in rats. INMT transcripts were identified in the cerebral cortex, pineal gland, and choroid plexus of both rats and humans via in situ hybridization. Notably, INMT mRNA was colocalized with AADC transcript in rat brain tissues, in contrast to rat peripheral tissues where there existed little overlapping expression of INMT with AADC transcripts. Additionally, extracellular concentrations of DMT in the cerebral cortex of normal behaving rats, with or without the pineal gland, were similar to those of canonical monoamine neurotransmitters including serotonin. A significant increase of DMT levels in the rat visual cortex was observed following induction of experimental cardiac arrest, a finding independent of an intact pineal gland. These results show for the first time that the rat brain is capable of synthesizing and releasing DMT at concentrations comparable to known monoamine neurotransmitters and raise the possibility that this phenomenon may occur similarly in human brains.
“Human civilisation will mostly likely have collapsed within fifty years… what’s the fucking big deal?”
Look… weird little creepy peado Britain… YOU ARE GOING TO FUCKING WAR! 😀
You have a choice… expose ten years of a completely deranged bizarre gang stalking cult… or go to war! 😀 (we thought so!)
Aside from The City Of London… there’s absolutely fuck all you can offer us, offer the EU, offer the US… offer the world! You are failed state in decline… but you still have some sort of military capability (if the US backs you up)… we suggest you use it!
(honestly… we could collapse this shit hole pathetic mentally ill island within five years)
The heedless drift towards war with Iran shames Britain
Jeremy Hunt says Britain would stand with the US in the case of military intervention. How has Iraq been forgotten so quickly?
Fri 28 Jun 2019
The imperial city of Persepolis, ruined capital of Persia’s kings, rises from the desert north-east of Shiraz like a rebuke to invaders, ancient and modern. Its marble columns, many still standing, were erected about 500BC when inhabitants of the British Isles were capering around in animal skins and it was Greeks who posed the biggest military threat. Donald Trump’s America was a bad idea whose time had not yet come.
Britain’s recent history with Iran is, for the most part, shaming. Nineteenth-century imperialists and traders exploited and bullied, redrawing its borders with the Raj. British armies invaded and occupied and, in the 1920s, helped to elevate Reza Shah to the peacock throne. The ensuing era of autocratic rule sowed the seeds of the anti-western 1979 Islamic revolution. At Persepolis, graffiti left by Victorian army officers still defaces its pillars.
The US has since supplanted Britain as tormentor-in-chief, but Iranians have long memories. Many would agree with Mohammad Mosaddegh who, before the 1953 Anglo-American coup that ousted him as prime minister, told the US envoy Averell Harriman: “You do not know how crafty they [the British] are. You do not know how evil they are. You do not know how they sully everything they touch.”
Given this bitter legacy, and its other regional blunderings, it might be assumed Britain would fight shy of further intervention. Not a bit of it. This week the US slapped unprecedented sanctions on Iran’s senior leaders, suggesting diplomacy is at an end. Yet as Washington’s war drums beat ever louder, a familiar sucking noise can be heard above the din. It is the sound of Britain being inexorably drawn – again – into an avoidable, calamitous Middle East war.
What should really chill the blood of British citizens is the way their own government – and the two men who want to be the next prime minister – are creating a situation, largely undiscussed and undebated, in which Britain will have no choice but to support a Trump attack on Iran, and worse, will have little hope of avoiding direct military involvement.
This senseless, heedless drift into another ill-conceived, unjustifiable and illegal conflict must surely stir alarming memories in the most complacent Tory heart. Do none of these people recall a similar made-in-America catastrophe in Iraq in 2003? Don’t the Chilcot report’s damning findings – that Tony Blair failed to explore all peaceful options and deliberately exaggerated the threat – ring urgent bells now?
The foreign secretary, Jeremy Hunt, supposedly the sensible Tory choice, is clinging uncomfortably to the White House bandwagon. Hunt knows full well American and Israeli claims that Iran is building a nuclear weapon are hyperbolic and disingenuous. But, he says, Britain under his leadership would “stand by the United States” and consider military intervention in Iran “on a case-by-case basis”.
Hunt has also made clear he accepts unproven US intelligence blaming Iran for recent attacks – indeed, he disowned a British general who questioned it. And he agrees with Trump that Iran’s ill-defined “destabilising activity” constitutes a casus belli.
Hunt may not want war. But a British military buildup is under way on his watch, including deployments of special forces, marines, Royal Navy ships out of Bahrain and, potentially, RAF F-35 fighter jets based in Cyprus. Trump has already demanded armed patrols to protect oil tankers in the Gulf. Just where does Hunt imagine all this will lead, if and when the US starts shooting?
Boris Johnson has said less about Iran, hoping perhaps not to remind people of his mishandling, when foreign secretary, of the Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe case. Yet his likely attitude to an outbreak of hostilities is no mystery. Johnson is an unabashed Trump-world groupie. He already has the president’s personal backing. And his Brexit strategy, such as it is, depends on swiftly cutting a comprehensive US trade deal.
If Trump turns to Britain when faced with Iranian retaliation – which would certainly have happened last week if planned US air strikes had gone ahead – arch-sycophant Johnson, like company-man Hunt, can be expected to fall tamely, even enthusiastically, into line. Will parliament or the public be consulted in a timely fashion? Not a hope!
It’s true the US takes ever less notice of what British leaders say – reflecting a wider problem of declining national influence. But Trump still needs moral ballast. The prospect of Britain sleepwalking into a new American war has been greatly increased by Tory-propagated delusions about the country’s global status and supposed ability to “punch above its weight”. Their bluff may soon be called. But it won’t be Tory blaggers who pay the price.
The Conservatives’ Brexit obsession has also distracted attention and blurred judgment. When the foreign office minister Andrew Murrison visited Tehran this week, his tough reception should not have come as a surprise. In their talks, Seyed Abbas Araghchi, deputy foreign minister, displayed an embarrassingly accurate grasp of where post-imperial, post-Europe Britain was going wrong.
“It appears that the British government’s entanglement with the predicament of Brexit has prevented it from having a correct understanding of the global realities,” Araghchi said acidly. Its collusion with “America’s bully-style measures” would only further harm the UK’s standing.
The Iranians are right. Across the Middle East, Britain is too often seen as in league with despots and murderers while its subservience to harmful American policies erodes its reputation. In Yemen, Britain is closely identified with a Trump-backed, Saudi-led war that has caused immeasurable suffering – and to what end, save further unlawful weapons sales?
If Trump’s hawks get their war, Britain risks being sucked in on the side of an aggressive superpower whose words and deeds are increasingly inimical to this country’s interests and values. There’s an old debt to be paid, and it’s high time Britain finally did the right thing by Iran. That requires unhesitating, active opposition to the threat the Trump regime poses to Iranians, the wider region – and to us.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu tells Cyber Week conference that Israeli cyber-intelligence helped foil attack of an Etihad Airways plane flying from Sydney to Abu Dhabi, June 26, 2019 (YouTube screenshot)
Israel has used cyber-intelligence to help foil “major” terror attacks planned by the Islamic State terror group and others in “dozens” of countries, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said at a cybersecurity conference on Wednesday in Tel Aviv.
Netanyahu said at the conference that Israel had, for example, helped foil an IS attack on an Etihad Airways flight from Sydney to Abu Dhabi, and alerted Australian officials, helping thwart an explosion in the air. Etihad is the national airline of the United Arab Emirates.
“That plane from Sydney to Abu Dhabi was going to be exploded in midair,” he said. “We found out through our cyber activities, we found out that ISIS was going to do this and so we alerted the Australian police and they stopped this, before it happened.”
“This particular incident, I can talk about,” Netanyahu said. “If you multiply that 50 times, that will give you an idea of the contribution that Israel has made to prevent major terrorist operations, especially from ISIS, in dozens of countries and most of those cases were foiled because of our activities in cybersecurity.”
“This affects every country in the world, every person in the world,” he added.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu with a slide demonstrating at Cyber Week how airplane attacks were foiled in the past, before the use of cyber intelligence, Tel Aviv, June 26, 2019 (Chen Galili)
Israel shares information about cyberthreats and attacks with 85 countries, he said.
In his speech at the Cyber Week conference, Netanyahu said that the world and Israel were undergoing a “revolution” in which everything from agriculture to health to cars was becoming connected. Israel can play a major part in this revolution, he said, because of its tech prowess. But none of it is possible if the cyber sphere is not secured.
Israel has made an “enormous investment” in human capital, mainly via its military training programs, and has created a group of people with skills who “can deal with the ramifications of this revolution,” he said.
“Cyber is essential to the growth of anything we are talking about,” he said. “Nothing of this… growth is possible without the accompanying cybersecurity and we intend to be world leaders in that field.”
To achieve this, Israel must keep investing in its national cyber capabilities and at the same time must not stymie businesses through over-regulation.
As the cybersecurity industry grows, so will the need for regulation, similar to the weapons industry, he acknowledged. “but my principal role has been not to over-regulate.
“I think we have to take a risk, and it is a considerable risk, of regulating less in order to to grow more and that is a decision that I and Israel have taken.”
Yigal Unna, Director General of the Israel National Cyber Directorate, speaking at the Cyber Week conference held at the University of Tel Aviv (Chen Galili)
Yigal Unna, director general of the Israel National Cyber directorate, said at the conference that the Middle East is a “magnet for cyberattacks,” with Iran identified as one of the five most active players all over the world, targeting mainly Gulf states for attacks because they are less protected than Israel.
“Israel is prepared for cyber threats; we have the capability to respond forcefully to cyberattackers, and not necessarily on the same vector as the attacks,” he said.
The Iranians work not only to collect data, or intelligence, but to cause damage by wiping out it out, he said.
The new threats the world is witnessing include attacks on supply chains, targeted ransom attacks on large corporations, a substantial increase in revelations of vulnerabilities in various technological infrastructures, and a substantial decrease in the amount of time between the discovery of a vulnerability and its exploitation.
He said the Cyber Net, set up by the National Cyber Directorate, has some 1,000 active users, among whom are government agencies and private firms. The Net acts like a sort of “social media” for cybersecurity, connecting relevant officials at firms and government entities to shared information and updates on how to foil attacks.
Unna added that a new system to detect website defacement, called Trackzilla, set up by the Directorate has been shown to be effective in lowering the number of hacks. The system does passive scanning of all the major websites in Israel and if it sees a defacement, it engages with it, and fixes the attacked website.
According to data he presented, in the past half-year alone, 40 Israeli cybersecurity firms raised a total of $850 million in funding compared to a total of $1.1 billion in 2018. In the first half of the year, Israeli cybersecurity firms recorded seven exits totaling $1.5 billion, he said.
Well stalker Britain… we exposed child abuse (you stalked those who exposed child abuse)… we exposed mass surveillance (you stalked those you exposed mass surveillance)… we exposed offshore finance and terror funding (again you stalked those who exposed it) … In fact UK… you created an absolute fantasy world of make believe in order to avoid any kind of reality… you used paedophile rings, rapists, drug dealers, down and out cocaine addicts and a woman who’s still pissed off because I kissed another girl at my high school prom, as an ‘intelligence agency’… and you wonder what wrong? 🙂
And now your looking for a way to avoid going to war? 😀 Didn’t really think this one through did you MI5? … Would I have any remorse for dragging the UK into another war? … watching UK solders die? … DON’T BE SO FUCKING RIDICULOUS PLEASE! 😀
Crises in the Gulf and Conservative leadership elections come around with unnerving regularity. It is not unknown for both to coincide — that happened in 1990, when Margaret Thatcher was overthrown in the lead-up to the first Gulf War. On that occasion, drama on the domestic front did not smother Britain’s response to the international crisis — unlike now.
It is bizarre to have a US president threatening to ‘obliterate’ Iran while our Foreign Secretary hardly bothers to respond, preferring to pose with fish and chips and Irn Bru on the campaign trail.
Jeremy Hunt did intervene briefly a fortnight ago, when he described Jeremy Corbyn’s refusal to accept that Iran was responsible for attacks on oil tankers in the Strait of Hormuz as ‘pathetic’. But beyond that brief clash of the Jeremys, it is hard to detect that there is any government policy on the current skirmish between the US and Iran. Were the Trump administration to go ahead with a military strike, as it nearly did last week in the wake of Iran’s downing of a US naval drone, would Britain support it or condemn it? If the crisis developed into full-scale war, would British forces join US operations, as they did twice in Iraq? Would we provide tactical support, as we did in Libya in 1986, when the first attacks were made on the Gaddafi regime? Would we sit on our hands, or would we become stern opponents? We don’t know because the government has given no indication at all. That is extraordinary.
Perhaps the government’s silence is a reflection of our loss of military power. As our forces have been run down, it has become ever harder for us to pretend that we could join a US-led operation on anything like equal terms — if indeed we wanted to.
Our failure to take a position on this crisis in the Gulf is possibly also a reflection of the character of the 45th president of the United States. We have become so used to belligerent tweets emanating from the White House in the small hours that we are now inured to Donald Trump’s language. When he first came to office, Trump seemed a terrifying figure, likely to lash out at any moment with the full force of US military might. We cringed when he tweeted that he had a bigger nuclear button than Kim Jong-un. But the longer his presidency goes on, the more familiar we become with Trump’s methods. He likes to talk tough, as he did with the Korean leader, but his threats are really just a way of bringing adversaries to the negotiating table. Far from being the warmonger many supposed him to be, it is quite possible that Trump will complete his term of office without leading US forces into a new offensive anywhere in the world — something which would distinguish him from his five most recent predecessors.
Set against that possibility, however, is the President’s national security adviser, John Bolton, who continues to subscribe to the interventionist doctrines which drove George W. Bush towards a policy of regime change against Saddam Hussein’s Iraq — a policy which, in spite of showing the superiority of American military might in the short term, did not neatly end once victory was declared.
It is far from clear how the present Iran crisis will play out. For Britain, it may well be that a low-key approach to the spat between the US and Iran is the best policy for now. It was not our assessment that Iran had broken the terms of the international deal which lifted sanctions on the country in return for it agreeing to curtail its nuclear programme. We are still sticking to our side of the deal. But in the past few weeks the International Atomic Energy Agency has confirmed that Iran has once again increased its production of enriched uranium. Iran is still governed by a deeply untrustworthy regime. The country’s behaviour over the past few months, since the US withdrew from the international deal which ended sanctions, is not that of an innocent party committed to normalising its relations with the rest of the world. Rather, it suggests a government whose default position is to build up military might, riding roughshod over international accords and treaties in the process.
Before long Britain, along with other signatories of the 2015 deal with Iran, will be forced to take sides. Trump has announced that his next move will be to extend sanctions to those who trade with Iran — with the aim of cutting off all Iranian oil imports. We will have to decide between opposing Trump’s dismantling of the 2015 deal or joining the US in the imposition of sanctions on Iran. China, another signatory to the deal, will be forced to make a similar choice. If it continues to trade with Iran, the trade war between the US and China will intensify.
In four weeks’ time, Britain will have a new prime minister who will be immediately preoccupied with Brexit. Both of the candidates have experience at the Foreign Office but, having been in the job during periods of relative calm in the Middle East, neither will be prepared for the reality of having to deal with the latest chapter of conflict in the Gulf at the same time as trying to leave the EU. Both contenders would do well to prepare by spending some quiet moments over the next few weeks working out how they might respond to a US conflict with Iran.