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539 multinationals operate in Israel, view nation as go-to place for ideas

“If you could fuck around with the hydrogen atom, you could fuck around with the energy process in the sun. You could fuck around with life itself,” – Dr. Phillip Anderson, Nobel laureate physics, Princeton University.

yeah we know!

539 multinationals operate in Israel, view nation as go-to place for ideas

Report by industry tracker maps activities of global firms and tracks evolution of their activities in Startup Nation

By Shoshanna Solomon

SAP's new building in Ra'anana, Israel (Courtesy: Uzi Porat)

SAP’s new building in Ra’anana, Israel (Courtesy: Uzi Porat)

There are 539 multinational corporations from 35 countries operating in Israel’s tech ecosystem, with these firms seeing the startup-heavy country as a go-to place for new ideas and entrepreneurial culture, according to a report by Start-Up Nation Central (SNC) and PwC Israel.

The report tracks the evolution of these companies’ activities in the so-called Startup Nation, according to a statement released by SNC.

According to the data, 55 percent of the MNCs innovating in Israel are headquartered in the US, 27% in Europe, and 15% in the Asia-Pacific, including China.

These firms are in the fields of technology (18%), pharmaceuticals and life-sciences (8%), financial services (13%), industrial products (10%), automotive and transportation technologies (11%), entertainment, communications and media (11%), food and agriculture 8%, and retail and consumer (10%), among others.

This illustrative photo shows the Facebook logo displayed on a tablet in Paris on February 17, 2019. (Lionel Bonaventure/AFP)

There are more than 6,600 startups in Israel’s small and connected economy, 14 times the concentration of startups per capita in Europe. And while Israel has just 0.1% of the world’s population, the nation attracts 19% of global investment in cybersecurity, ranks number one globally in R&D expenditures per GDP, and attracts the highest rate of venture capital funding per capita in the world — some $674 per capita in 2018, according to the report.

Over time, MNCs have diversified their operations in Israel. Firms that started operations via the acquisition of a startup or by setting up R&D operations locally have started adding open innovation models as well, collaborating with local innovators, mainly startups, through incubators, or with academic institutions, the report said. Open innovation refers to the process in which firms collaborate with idea- and technology-rich third parties — often startups — as opposed to developing all of their technologies in house.

“We see a shift in the operations of these MNCs in Israel toward open innovation platforms,” said Karin Gattegno, VP of Strategic Partnerships at SNC, in a phone interview. This collaboration opens them up to other views that they wouldn’t be exposed to by just doing in-house R&D, she said. With open innovation, they get access to a variety of startups “that have a lot to offer.”

Some 59% of MNCs tracked in the report operate via R&D facilities. These are companies with significant Israel-based research and development operations, often grown through acquisitions of local companies, that benefit from the talent pool of software engineers and data scientists to lead new product ideation and development.

Daimler AG chairman, Dieter Zetsche, center, with Ola Källenius, the head of group research at Mercedes-Benz Cars Development (left) at the launch of the Mercedes-Benz Tel Aviv Tech Center; Nov. 16, 2017 (Shoshanna Solomon/TimesofIsrael)

Some 25% of the MNCs operate in Israel via a partnership-led model, meaning the firm works together with startups or academic institutions or other third-party entities through commercial agreements and or jointly developing a product; others — some 16% — use the investment-led model, when global corporates invest in local startups for strategic purposes or financial returns.

The report notes a shift, starting in 2014, from a traditionally R&D-led focus to more investment-led and partnership-led open innovation operating models.

Since 2014, there has been a “notable increase in the number of open innovation teams being activated by MNCs in Israel,” the report said, and the “blend of industries has also increased since 2014, with retail, healthcare and financial services companies starting to explore collaborative programs with third parties.”

When asked what the key drivers were for setting up their innovation activities in Israel, some 77% of MNCs said it was to enhance their core capabilities with open innovation, while others, 44%, said it was to access local talent and to gain “disruptive business models.” Others said the aim was to acquire local R&D assets (37%), gain a return on investment, (32%) and because of the innovation culture in Israel (28%).

Some 89% of the respondents said their activities in Israel have indeed enabled them to achieve incremental innovation on existing products and services.

The MNC executives interviewed by the authors of the report cite four key benefits of innovating in Israel: the nation’s technology capabilities — the distinctive quality of the intellectual property and technical maturity of Israeli startups; the local talent pool, which is seen as a “significant asset”; the openness and accessibility of the players in the ecosystem and the small and highly concentrated market, with its culture of collaboration, even among competitors, which is very distinctive; and the “challenge mindset” of Israelis — where local innovation teams impact the broader group by challenging prevailing ideas, bringing imaginative and more aggressive applications to the technologies and ways of doing things.

Apple’s new Herzliya R&D center (Photo credit: Courtesy)

MNC’s have discovered that operating in Israel exposes them to the “Israeli mindset,” Gattegno said, with “entrepreneurs who work fast to resolve problems, provide out of the box solutions. This mindset also has an impact on the bigger company. Working with Israelis helps these firms bring the mindset of innovation and problem solving” to the organization as a whole.

The key challenges to innovating in Israel are bridging the corporate and startup way of working; smoothing the interface between the Israeli activities and other business units; overcoming cultural barriers; finding and retaining talent; aligning corporate and innovation strategy; and managing the distance between HQ and Israel, the report said.

MNCs’ confidence in their innovation performance in Israel is very high. Two-thirds of MNCs surveyed perceive themselves as ahead of competition in terms of innovation performance. Some 40% of the MNCs surveyed cited Israel as a “distinctive location” for their global activities, different from their other innovation locations. For some of them, it was because of the impact the innovation in Israel has had on their revenue — for example, 50% of Merck Group’s global healthcare revenue stems from Israeli innovation — whereas for others, the operations in Israel are distinctive because it was their first center outside their HQ location.

The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with MNC executives and innovation experts in Israel and globally between September and December 2018, the report said.

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Chinese quantum prize rewards international stars of the field

“Well done China! Keep up the good work!
(if only the Americans would sign Quantum research into law!)

Chinese quantum prize rewards international stars of the field

The Micius Quantum Prize celebrates a field that China increasingly values.

A satellite-to-earth link with the quantum satellite "Micius"
A satellite-to-Earth link is established between the quantum satellite ‘Micius’ and a quantum teleportation experiment. Credit: Jin Liwang/Xinhua/Alamy

A private Chinese foundation has announced the first 12 winners of the Micius Quantum Prize, a new prize awarded to quantum scientists from across the world.

On 26 April, the Micius Foundation announced winners for the 2018 and 2019 prizes, which recognize quantum computation and quantum communication, respectively. Six scientists won for each year, all of whom will receive one million yuan (about US$150,000).

Although the prize recognizes international recipients, it celebrates a field that China increasingly values and contributes to. “The prize symbolizes China’s growing ambition but also research accomplishments in quantum technologies,” says quantum physicist Artur Ekert of the University of Oxford, UK, who is one of the 2019 prizewinners, for his theoretical contributions that helped to establish the field of quantum cryptography.

The winners also include other stars of quantum science, such as Peter Shor, a mathematician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, and David Deutsch, a physicist at the University of Oxford, UK — both of whom wrote pioneering quantum algorithms — and Pan Jian-Wei, a physicist at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei. Pan was the main architect of the world’s first quantum-communications space satellite, also called Micius, after an ancient Chinese philosopher. Eleven of the winners are from Europe and North America; Pan is the only award recipient from China.

Encouraging development

The Micius Foundation, which is located at the USTC, was established in 2018 with 100 million yuan in donations from private entrepreneurs.

“We see a rapid and encouraging development of quantum-information science worldwide, and we are very excited about it,” says USTC physicist Luo Yi, the foundation’s chair and a member of the prize’s seven-person selection committee. “We hope to be part of history.”

The Shaw Prize, which awards international scientists in astronomy, the life sciences and mathematics, is based in Hong Kong. But prizes from mainland China that celebrate scientists from around the world are rare.

“I see this prize as an effort to embrace and recognize an international quantum-physics community beyond national interests,” says theoretical physicist Peter Zoller of the University of Innsbruck, Austria, who is one of the 2018 prizewinners, for his theoretical work on quantum computation. He says that the prize is recognition that Chinese quantum science is “part of an international family”.

Other prizes in quantum science include the Rolf Landauer and Charles H Bennett Award in Quantum Computing, which is sponsored by the American Physical Society, and the International Conference on Quantum Communication, Measurement and Computing award. Gilles Brassard, a computer scientist from the University of Montreal in Canada, one of the Micius prizewinners in the 2019 quantum-computation category, says that the Micius award is “certainly the biggest in terms of money”, and “was created to be the biggest in terms of prestige”. The “future will tell”, he adds.

Lu Chaoyang, the secretary-general of the foundation and a quantum physicist at the Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, was mentored by and has collaborated with Pan. But Luo says that this collaboration did not create a conflict of interest during the selection of winners. “The secretary-general is in charge of daily operations of the foundation,” he says. “Dr Lu is not in the selection committee, and doesn’t have the right to nominate, recommend, and evaluate.”

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Israel should prepare for the day China will rule the Middle East

More like ‘Israel should prepare for the day China realises Israel rules the Middle East!’ 😀

Like I said the other day, the West is in decline, the US is a collapsing empire, Europe is in turmoil… the United Kingdom has had a serious mental breakdown and may not ever recover… … we look East! 😀

The Great Silk Road (One Belt, One Road), extended across Central and Lower Asia, we prepare for a century of The Chinese Dragon dominance, extending it’s claw onto Israel’s borders.
Their power will extend into Africa, Latin America, Europe… Middle East (including Iran!)

They like technology and like to do business! (and gamble)… I might go and do China in the next year!

Israel should prepare for the day China will rule the Middle East

Opinion: Israeli government has so far been dangerously indifferent to Chinese plans to invest hundreds of millions of dollars in Syria over the next 30 years, effectively cementing their presence in the war-battered, neighboring state
Alex Fishman|Published:  04.30.19 , 01:24

When a senior Israeli security official was recently asked who will rehabilitate Syria, ravaged by a decade-long civil war, he replied without hesitation – the Chinese. This has been the prevailing assumption among the high-profile Israeli security experts over the past two years, and it’s no longer just an academic assessment.

This development requires the Israeli government to prepare for a new Middle East in which China plays a key role. Israel’s research and assessment institutes – both governmental and military – should have already made plans for what happens once China establishes its presence on Syrian territory. The Israeli government, however, seems to make decisions after the damage is already done.

Back in 2015, Israel allowed a Chinese company to operate parts of the Haifa port for the next 25 years, with an option to extend it for another 25. The decision was made without fully understanding the implications of long-term Chinese involvement in a key strategic infrastructure. The Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Finance were certain they were being sophisticated and everyone would get to enjoy the crumbs of Chinese trillions. But the crumbs come at a price when it comes to not only politics, but security as well.

Syrian flag on the Israel-Syria border (Photo: Reuters)

Syrian flag on the Israel-Syria border (Photo: Reuters)

The Americans claim the Chinese involvement in the Haifa port activities is a blow to US national security, and the day when Israel will have to decide between US and China is not far away. As a result, the government is now trying to hurriedly amend the arrangement with the Chinese in order to soften the blow as far as the White House is concerned.

The Chinese involvement in Syria could be much more dramatic and complicated. The rehabilitation of the war-battered country is a project that would cost trillions and would most likely take decades to complete. Since the start of the civil war in 2011, the Syrian economy had lost some $ 250 billion, half of the country’s inranstrucure was destroyed, six million Syrians fled the state, and an additional four million became refugees in their own homeland.

Some estimate that restoring the country to its pre-2011 condition will take up to 30 years. The Russians don’t have the ability to invest in Syria beyond military infrastructure, while Iran (another ally of President Bashar Assad’s regime) needs to rehabilitate itself first following the reintroduction of US sanctions on the Islamic Republic. The Americans have no interest in investing there, the Europeans only seem to invest their optimistic rhetoric and not money, while the Gulf states and Saudi Arabia would never do anything that could potentially strengthen the Assad regime due to its close relationship with Tehran.

This leaves the Chinese – who have both money and interest, as part of their $900 billion New Silk Route initiative – as the only ones capable to take on a project of this scale. The plan includes a construction of land and sea routes connecting China with Europe’s largest market, while simultaneously creating Chinese dominance of future global communications. China doesn’t differentiate between national security and economic initiatives. The New Silk Road is designed to ensure China’s global dominance vis-a-vis the US and Russia.  

China's Vice-President Wang Qishan with Prime Minister Netanyahu and his wife Sara

China’s Vice-President Wang Qishan with Prime Minister Netanyahu and his wife Sara

Syria will never be able to pay back the Chinese government, therefore, it will be a repeat of the investment model Beijing officials have established in Africa. China is building infrastructure in many African countries and since they are unable to repay the mounting debts, the Chinese companies are taking over these countries’ natural resources and subjugating state policies to accommodate China’s interests.

China is now involved in the economies of more than 60 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. Some of these countries have become completely enslaved by the Chinese interests. Once China has poured hundreds of billions of dollars into Syria, the Russians will sit quietly in the port of Tartus – leased to them by Assad for the next 49 years – trying to protect their assets. The Iranians will also have to behave themselves.

Israel, meanwhile, will have to deal with the fact that our border with Syria will be under the Chinese jurisdiction. When will the Israeli government begin preparing for this inevitable scenario? Most likely the day after it happens.

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Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls… Notre Dame Cathedrals Great Butterfly House! :D

“Imagine a place to escape the hustle and bustle of modern central Paris… the traffic, the annoying unnecessary car horns, the persistent rudeness, the homeless… the riots of the working classes and the Islamic terror attacks… an oasis of tranquillity and paradise in the heart of Europe’s most romantic city. A place to rediscover the beauty of nature, for romantic couples, families and old alike… a place of beauty, splendour and wonder…
Ladies and gentlemen…
Notre Dame Cathedrals Great Butterfly House 😀
(with some bees on top)

Housing some of the worlds rarest, most unique and exotic species of butterflies from around the world.

Also home to the world famous Rothschild butterfly collection.

The butterfly effect by Hannah Rothschild

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Deal With It: Jerusalem is Israel’s Capital

Deal With It: Jerusalem is Israel’s Capital

By Pesach BensonApril 28, 2019

Jerusalem capital

“Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.”

Why does that simple five-word statement raise such controversy? Can most of the world really be wrong to deny Jerusalem’s capital status? What exactly are the counter-arguments, and how effective is Israel at balancing principle and pragmatism in the city?

And does all the fuss — about the city’s political and legal status, the diplomatic missions, the conflicting claims — even really matter?

1. The basics of capital cities

Countries choose their capital and place most — if not all — of the main offices of government in that city. Period.

In most instances, the seat of executive, parliamentary, judicial and administrative authority is concentrated in that city. It’s where embassies are located and where visiting foreign officials meet the state leaders. Some capitals, such as London, Buenos Aires, or Bangkok, also happen to be the country’s center of population, economy or culture. Other capitals, such as Canberra or Brasilia, take a back seat to Sydney and Rio de Janeiro in those matters.

Countries which have changed capital cities are perfectly normal. Countries with multiple capitals are less common but accepted as well, dividing the seats of power executive, legislative, judicial and administrative power as they see fit.

Bottom line: The capital is wherever a country decides to make it. It makes no difference what other states say about that choice. That’s the standard behavior.

2. Jerusalem the capital: Historical context

City of David
A model of the City of David as it appeared during the Roman era.

So how did Jerusalem become the capital of ancient Jewish kingdoms and today’s modern Israel?

Jerusalem came under Israelite control when King David conquered the city (Samuel II, ch. 5.) and relocated his throne there from Hebron (ch. 6). His son, King Solomon, would build the First Temple years later. When the biblical kingdom split between Judah and Israel (Kings I ch. 12), Jerusalem remained the capital of Judah.

In 597 BCE, Nebuchanezzar sacked Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple, and exiled the Jews to Babylonia. But Cyrus II of Persia allowed the Jews to return to Judah and rebuild the Temple, as described in the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah..

Fast forward to 140 BCE, when the Hasmoneans, a priestly family, rebelled against the Seleucid King Antiochus IV and purified the Temple in events commemorated by the holiday of Chanukah. The Hasmonean dynasty ruled from Jerusalem for a little over 100 years before the family was destroyed by the Romans, who installed Herod the Great as king. The Jews revolted against Roman rule, but the uprising was crushed in 70 CE.

Related reading: Jewish Ties to the Temple Mount – What’s the Story?

From 70 CE until 1948, a period of almost 2,000 years, Jerusalem was ruled by the Romans, Byzantines, Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Seljuks, Crusaders, Ayyubids, Mamluks, Ottomans and the British. The city never served as a political, administrative or religious capital for any of its conquerors.

Jerusalem served as the capital for the Jews, and nobody else.

3. Jerusalem a capital again

UN Partiion Plan of 1947

In November, 1947, the United Nations voted to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states and establish Jerusalem as an international city under UN auspices. As British forces left the Holy Land in May, 1948, Israel declared independence and the Arabs attacked. Jordanian forces isolated Jerusalem, but failed to fully capture it.

Thus, Tel Aviv initially served as Israel’s capital, with the Provisional State Council (Moetzet Hamedina Hazmanit) convening at various Tel Aviv venues.

The War of Independence ended with an armistice in February, 1949. The armistice lines were far different from the borders envisioned by the Partition Plan. And Jerusalem, instead of being internationalized, was now divided between Israel and Jordan. After the war, the UN began discussions on how to implement the internationalization of Jerusalem, prompting prime minister David Ben Gurion’s announcement in December 1949 that the Israeli capital would be moved to Jerusalem:

A nation that, for two thousand and five hundred years, has faithfully adhered to the vow made by the first exiles by the waters of Babylon not to forget Jerusalem, will never agree to be separated from Jerusalem. Jewish Jerusalem will never accept alien rule after thousands of its youngsters liberated their historic homeland for the third time, redeeming Jerusalem from destruction and vandalism.

We do not judge the U.N., which did nothing when nations, which were members of the U.N., declared war on its resolution of 29 November 1947, trying to prevent the establishment of Israel by force, to annihilate the Jewish population in the Holy Land and destroy Jerusalem, the holy city of the Jewish people.

Had we not been able to withstand the aggressors who rebelled against the U.N., Jewish Jerusalem would have been wiped off the face of the earth, the Jewish population would have been eradicated and the State of Israel would not have arisen. Thus, we are no longer morally bound by the U.N. resolution of November 29, since the U.N. was unable to implement it. In our opinion the decision of 29 November regarding Jerusalem is null and void.

On December 26, 1949, the Knesset moved to its temporary residence in “Beit Frumin” on King George St. in Jerusalem.  And on August 31, 1966, the Knesset moved to its current, permanent location  in Jerusalem’s Government Quarter.

Knesset
The Knesset building in Jerusalem

4. What about the Green Line?

In the 3,000 or so years of Jerusalem’s history, the city was only divided for a 19-year period. The armistice which ended the War of Independence left Israel in control of the city’s western neighborhood and Jordan in control of the city’s eastern neighborhoods. Israel made its capital in the western half of Jerusalem.

United Jerusalem

But that changed in June, 1967. While Israel launched a preemptive air strike on the Egyptian Air Force, Israel conveyed a message to Jordan’s King Hussein asking him to stay out of the fighting. But the king believed Egyptian president Gamel Abdel Nasser’s denials of significant Egyptian losses and ordered Jordanian forces to launch attacks on Israel. The Israeli Defense Forces counter-attacked, recapturing eastern Jerusalem and driving Jordanian forces to the Jordan River’s East Bank.

Jerusalem was reunited and entirely under Israeli control.

Professor Eugene Kontorovich explains why the 1949 armistice line — more commonly known as the Green Line — has no bearing on the city’s capital status.

The “Green Line” was created in the wake of Israel’s 1948-49 War of Independence. Upon the country’s founding, Jordan and its allies invaded, with the goal of preventing the creation of a Jewish state. Although they failed at that goal, the Arab armies did occupy significant territory when the armistice was called, including what is now widely referred to as the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Jordan subsequently expelled all Jews from the areas under its control.

In 1967, during the Six Day War, Israel recaptured these places. But in the war’s aftermath the United Nations invested the temporary 1949 armistice line with talismanic significance. The U.N. claimed Israel was “occupying” the territory that Jordan had forcibly seized not two decades earlier. Thus the international community came up with a unique demand: Israel had to keep the areas under its control, including East Jerusalem and the Old City, free of Jewish inhabitants. Any move to unify Jerusalem would be considered a war crime.

In international law, armistice lines are not borders; they merely mark breaks in the fighting. The claim that the Green Line created a permanent “Judenrein” zone in the area occupied by Jordan, or that it in any way changed the legal status of the territory on the far side, is unique and illiberal.

Thus, as Ambassador Alan Baker summed up:

The 1967 unification of Jerusalem by Israel through the extension of its law, jurisdiction, and administration to eastern Jerusalem, while not accepted by the international community, did not alter the legality of Israel’s presence and status in, and governance of, the city.

5. Fudging the consulates’ status

Italy, Belgium, Great Britain, Greece, Spain, France, Sweden, and Turkey currently operate consulates in Jerusalem. But a closer look shows that these missions aren’t exactly  consulates in the fullest sense of the term.

Shmuel Berkowitz unpacks how Israel and these eight countries  creatively fudge the status of these missions, and why there aren’t more consulates in Jerusalem:

None of the foreign consulates in Jerusalem have submitted an official request (exequator) to the Israeli Foreign Ministry to recognize them as consulates in view of their desire to refrain from performing an act (i.e., submitting an application to the Foreign Ministry) that would imply recognition by their countries of Jerusalem as capital of the State of Israel – contrary to their stated policy. Nevertheless, as the foreign consulates in Jerusalem are representatives of friendly countries with which Israel maintains diplomatic relations, Israel recognizes them de facto and grants them consular status and documentation under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963. . . .

All the foreign consulates operated in Jerusalem before the unification of the city in June 1967, and some were even active in the city during the Ottoman period. Since June 1967, Israel has not permitted any state to open a new consulate in Jerusalem, but only an embassy, in view of its desire to encourage recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and pursuant to the international diplomatic practice of embassies being located in the capital of the host country.

(See also Berkowitz’s explanation of the Vatican’s Apostolic Delegation in Jerusalem, which is not noted here for brevity’s sake.)

* * *

At the very least, recognizing western Jerusalem as Israel’s capital shouldn’t be problematic.  To wit, visiting dignitaries already:

  • Present their credentials to the president at his residence in western Jerusalem.
  • Hold talks at the Prime Minister’s Office in western Jerusalem.
  • Meet lawmakers at the the Knesset in western Jerusalem.
  • Lay wreaths at the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum in western Jerusalem.
  • Spend the night at the top hotels of western Jerusalem.
Anwar Sadat Jerusalem
Egypt’s president Anwar Sadat addresses the Knesset in 1977.

In fact, once upon a time, more countries maintained embassies in Jerusalem. Shmuel Berkowitz explains that 18 countries moved their embassies out of Jerusalem (or were pressured to do so) when the Knesset adopted Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel in July, 1980, declaring that “Jerusalem, complete and united” is the capital of Israel:

The 18 countries, which held such embassies, accepted the decision and moved them out of the city. Following diplomatic pressure on Costa Rica, the latter returned its embassy to Jerusalem in 1982. In 1984, the embassy of El Salvador was also returned to Jerusalem. However, in the summer of 2008, following the Second Lebanon War and in order to improve their relations with the Arab countries, these two countries again withdrew their embassies from Jerusalem. Jerusalem thus became the only capital in the world without a single embassy.

Acknowledging that reality and correcting a historical snub, the US moved its embassy to Jerusalem in May, 2018. Days later, Guatemala followed suit.

Other countries since then have openly discussed moving their embassies, including Paraguay, Honduras, Brazil, Romania and the Czech Republic. Time will tell if, or when, they happen, or if other countries will join in.

The mere act of discussing such a move shows an acknowledgement of a political reality that Israel is here to stay and that the Jewish people have a historic attachment to Jerusalem that doesn’t have to preclude the possibility of a peace agreement giving Palestinians a capital stake in Jerusalem as well. In 2009, prime minister Ehud Olmert said he was prepared to divide Jerusalem for the sake of peace. More recently, in 2010, Benjamin Netanyahu’s defense minister, Ehud Barak, said Israel was prepared to cede parts of Jerusalem for peace.

It’s worth noting that the most significant breakthrough in Israeli-Arab relations — the Israeli-Egyptian peace agreement — began with Egyptian president Anwar Sadat visiting Israel in November, 1977. To win over the hearts and minds of Israelis, he gave a speech offering peace.

In the Knesset.

In Jerusalem, the capital of Israel.