Uncategorized

Israel… GUT-CP will make you into the technological powerhouse of the 21st century… THE TECHNOLOGICAL SUPERPOWER!

The British have essentially had a complete mental breakdown because of this!
(they couldn’t handle the power of the Sun). 

No offence Israel, but I’m coming to Tel Aviv… to Jerusalem, and I’m going to get Biblical on your arses! 😀

“For the first time in human history, the power of the Sun has been brought down to the surface of planet Earth”
“The most important discovery since fire”

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I have NEVER been so serious of anything in my life… Israel, take all those Quantum Physics books and (don’t burn them) but put them to one side for a moment… take physics back one hundred years and start a fresh… read Randell Mills’ work… read The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics… study it in depth, from it’s inception, it’s history, it’s continual evolution… the background to hydrino energy… the implications it has in EVERY of discipline of science (and philosophy).

This discovery is the greatest in recent human history… anyone that grasps it, and understands it, masters it, can propel technology and science forward in ways we can not yet imagine.

EVERYTHING from energy, physics, cosmology, chemistry, genetics, molecular biology, drug development, ‘anti-gravity’, synthetic materials, electronics… there is NOTHING this is not going to effect… aviation, space exploration, mineral extraction, medicine…

I’ve exhausted myself… I don’t know what else to say. Israel… apply your best and brightest to this, whilst everyone else is pursuing ‘Quantum’… you will emerge as the technological powerhouse of the next hundred years… a technological superpower… unrivalled and untouchable.
(sorry to those that disagree but there are military applications, I imagine Israel is already thinking the same!)

It’s the greatest gift you have since… … the Ark of the Covenant! 😀
(you can build yourself a new one! A 21st century Ark of the Covenant!)

grand

http://www.brettholverstott.com/

https://brilliantlightpower.com/

http://philosophystorm.org/koroeda

https://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue130/WallIE130.pdf

https://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue131/WallIE131Part2.pdf

http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue142/WallIE142.pdf

http://www.blacklightpower.com/wp-content/uploads/pdf/Natutech.nl_Article.pdf

https://vimeo.com/user26477140/videos

http://webcast.massey.ac.nz/Mediasite/Play/8ef7e03e26fc458b8eb7f351738f26811d

https://www.millsian.com/

https://fcnp.com/2018/08/17/great-energy-transition-fires-floods-fossil-fuels-new-energy/

https://www.villagevoice.com/tag/randell-mills/

https://www.infinite-energy.com/images/pdfs/RosenblumIE17.pdf

http://www.cheniere.org/misc/mills.htm

https://cen.acs.org/articles/94/i44/Cold-fusion-died-25-years.html

https://cognitivecarbonspot.wordpress.com/

http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/archive/ci/31/i10/html/10vp.html

https://www.researchgate.net/topic/hydrino

https://fcnp.com/2018/12/20/great-transition-progress-new-sources-energy/

Other inventions/patents from Dr Randell Mills ranging from genetic sequencing to selective drug delivery to Resonant magnetic susceptibility imagine (ReMSI)… the guys a genius!…
https://www.google.com/search?q=randell+mills

Climate Change, energy, Environment, Global Warming, technology

Energy Transitions 2019 – New Actors, New Technologies, New Business Models -March 18, Chatham House, London (THE CHATHAM HOUSE RULE!), The Rothschild Foundation.

“When a meeting, or part thereof, is held under the Chatham House Rule, participants are free to use the information received, but neither the identity nor the affiliation of the speaker(s), nor that of any other participant, may be revealed.”

£1302.00 … for a one day conference! No wonder these people rule the world!

chatham

Energy Transitions 2019

Leadership in a climate of disruptive change
18 March 2019 – 9:30am 5:30pm
Chatham House, London

Conference
Energy Transitions 2019
New Actors, New Technologies, New Business Models
18 March 2019 – 9:30am to 5:30pm
Chatham House, London

Overview

A global shift in the energy sector is under way with the rise of renewable energy sources spearheaded by their dominance of investment in the power sector. This is leading to disruptive change as the greater deployment of renewables and many associated technologies, such as storage, are challenging existing business models and threatening the market dominance of the existing actors. At the same time investment in fossil fuels has stabilized, as a slowdown of the financing of coal has been balanced by modest increases in spending in upstream oil and gas.

New global trends, electrification of new sectors such as transport and heating, along with the provision of modern energy services to over a billion people lacking access could further disrupt the energy sector, and the future impacts of these transitions on global energy security and sustainable transitions globally remain unclear.

Therefore, now, more than ever, it is critical that policy-makers and business leaders re-evaluate current and future strategies for delivering the domestic and international energy transition. The fourth annual Chatham House Energy Transitions conference will examine the new drivers of change, focusing on how different economies and industries can make the shift to a low-carbon energy future. Key questions to be explored include:

  • What will incentivize an acceleration in decarbonization and drive low-carbon innovation?
  • How can new technologies be deployed to transform grid interaction and enhance connectivity?
  • What are the implications of the changing policy environment for low-carbon investment?
  • How do disruptive shifts in the energy sector affect the prospects for enhancing access to clean, safe and sustainable energy in developing countries?

The Chatham House Rule
To enable as open a debate as possible, this conference will be held under the Chatham House Rule.

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“Have I applied?… maybe!” 😀

The Waddesdon Club: Mainstreaming Climate in Finance and Economic Decision-making

Achieving the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting temperature increases to ‘well below’ 2°C requires environmental leadership to rapidly emerge within the world’s centres of economic policymaking: treasuries, finance ministries and ministries of economy and business.
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Plenary Session at the Waddesdon Club 2018 annual meeting

The urgency of climate change dictates that the next generation of leaders must deliver the economic transformation needed; these individuals need to understand how climate and environment challenges will affect their time in power and define their legacies.
Our Work

The Waddesdon Club is Chatham House’s response – through engaging future leaders, it seeks to equip them with the necessary tools, concepts, language, and capacities for influence needed to advance a mainstream economic agenda for climate change and sustainable development. Core to this approach is an annual retreat at Waddesdon Manor, offering a unique opportunity for participants to deepen their knowledge; widen their peer network, including meeting leading international experts; and share their respective perceptions, experiences and ideas on climate change issues.~

Previous Waddesdon Club Retreats

The inaugural Waddesdon Club retreat was held in October 2016 with a broad focus on the importance of low-carbon industrial strategies in mobilizing capital for low-carbon investment, driving down technology costs, fostering innovation and phasing out high-emitting activities.

The second Waddesdon Club retreat took place in early 2018, with a discussion on the practical policy challenges of managing the green economy transition. Expert speakers highlighted the role of international institutions in shaping norms, policies and financial flows. Participants addressed the need for a vision that brings together poverty alleviation, tackling inequality and addressing climate change for a just transition amidst rapid decarbonisation.

ROTHSCHILD FOUNDATION
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Chatham House ‘Waddeson Club’ at Windmill Hill

Achieving the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting temperature increases requires strong environmental leadership within economic policymaking. In October 2016, Chatham House used the unique setting of Windmill Hill to convene future leaders in finance and economy ministries from across the globe. The self styled ‘Waddesdon Club’ aimed to enhance understanding of climate and environmental challenges and ensure consideration within policy making at the highest level.
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Organised by the Energy, Environment and Resources department and the International Economic departments at Chatham House the ‘retreat’ was attended by leading economic policymakers and experts from the fields of climate science, energy and finance. Utilising the inspiration of Windmill Hill, itself a celebration of the conservation and environmental work pursued by the Rothschild Foundation, attendees shared knowledge on the current political and economic context and explored the intersections of environmental and economic policymaking. With the long term aim of supporting economies to respond more effectively to global change, the event identified recommendations for future discussion.

In order to enhance attendees’ experience and support effective communication, a dedicated mobile app was developed for the event. Co-created by Chatham House and digital tool provider, Lumi, the app allowed real-time updates and feedback as well as being an on-going resource which supports the implementation of ideas discussed at the event.
Chatham House plan to continue the momentum built through the first Waddesdon Club with future events at Windmill Hill.

Philosophy, physics, quantum physics

The Quantum Physics Fairy Tale (Tales from Immanuel Kant)

“Quantum Physics is a fairy tale! Like a pretty, perfect looking magical castle in the distance… but when you finally get up close and inside… it’s a dark deceptive trap that you can never escape from!… … And it’s about to collapse!”

From David Harriman’s course “The Philosophic Corruption of Physics,”…

Below is a series of lectures, David Harriman’s series, “The Philosophic Corruption of Physics/Reality.” Herein, he walks us through the history of physics and how the Kantian philosophy subverted the science.

“I love the way this guy pronounces ‘Kant’… it’s like the posh English way of pronouncing…
“Okey dokey Danny Boy!”
“Quite fitting though really!” 😀

astro-physics, cosmology, GUT-CP, hydrino, particle physics

GAMBIT, Prometheus… (confirming GUT-CP using supercomputers?… unlocking the secrets of the Universe?)

“Anyone that knows me personally, knows I am literally like a little boy when it comes to this one! … X-Men comics! Anyone? No? GUESS WHO MY FAVOURITE X-MAN WAS!” 😀
“And still is?”
“GAMBIT! Well… I’m more inclined towards Magnetos Brotherhood these days”

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In the 21st century, physicists, mathematicians and theoreticians have turned to supercomputers in their quest for the ‘Unified Theory’ of physics. Supercomputers have been used in every field from cosmology, Astro-physics, particle physics, to the search for the elusive ‘dark matter’ (which Mills has identified as ‘hydrino’). Thus far each effort (as far as I’m aware) has been based on the ‘Standard Model’ of physics, and as of yet produced no concrete results, new theories or confirmation of existing ones (I.e. Standard Model).

Supercomputer Confirms Standard Model Theory Of The Universe, Mystery Deepens (eh?)

Why not use a supercomputer to test Mills’ GUT-CP model of atomic structure, and of the Universe? Mills has almost single handily built an entirely new model of physics, of the atom and electron… and has thus far proven to be far more accurate than the Standard Model and Quantum Mechanics.
Millsian software (as discussed previously) is a perfect example of the accuracy of his model in regards to molecular structure and calculating bond energy transfers. GUT-CP has predicted everything from the accelerated expansion of the Universe to recently confirmed ‘gravitational’ waves.

One such effort in the search for ‘dark matter’, ‘new physics’ and the fundamentals of particle physics & cosmology is the GAMBIT Collaboration project. GAMBIT is The Global And Modular BSM Inference Tool, and is made up of a collection of researchers from scientific intuitions worldwide, using the supercomputer Prometheus (amongst others) in the search for dark matter and a unified theory.
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GAMBIT narrows the hiding places for ‘new physics’
The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences
“Is it possible for today’s apparatus to detect the elementary particles of ‘new physics’ that are capable of explaining such mysteries as the nature of dark matter or the lack of symmetry between matter and antimatter? To answer this question, scientists from the international GAMBIT (Global and Modular Beyond-the-Standard-Model Inference Tool) Collaboration have developed a set of software tools that comprehensively analyse data collected during the most sophisticated contemporary experiments and measurements.”
“Although almost a century has passed since Zwicky’s discovery, it has not been possible to investigate the composition of dark matter to this day, nor even to unambiguously confirm its existence. Over this time, theoreticians have constructed many extensions of the Standard Model containing particles that are to a greater or lesser extent exotic.”

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The following article from Physics World explains GAMBIT, the history of the ‘discovery’ of ‘dark matter’ and the subsequent search for it’s identity’.
When supercomputers go over to the dark side
“Despite oodles of data and plenty of theories, we still don’t know what dark matter is. Martin White and Pat Scott describe how a new software tool called GAMBIT – run on supercomputers such as Prometheus – will test how novel theories stack up when confronted with real data”
“Unexpected scientific paradigm shifts, where reality turns out not to be as we believed, can be just as exciting and perplexing. One such dramatic change in perspective has been the dawning realization over the last few decades that “ordinary” matter accounts for just a fifth of the matter in the universe, with the rest made of a mysterious “dark” matter. Physicists love unsolved problems, and they don’t come much bigger than working out the nature of this dark stuff.
If a blockbuster movie is ever made about the discovery of dark matter, the next decade may well be the climax. New data from experiments such as CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are telling us more about what dark matter can and cannot be, while the recent discovery of gravitational waves reminds us that even century-old theories (general relativity in this case) can be spectacularly confirmed in the blink of an eye”

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The Cracow supercomputer Prometheus

GAMBIT project suggests theoretical particles are too massive for LHC detection
“The idea of the GAMBIT Collaboration is to create tools for analyzing data from as many experiments as possible, from different areas of physics, and to compare them very closely with the predictions of new theories. Looking comprehensively, it is possible to narrow the search areas of new physics much faster, and over time also eliminate those models whose predictions have not been confirmed in measurements,” explains Dr. Marcin Chrzaszcz
Verification of the new physics proposals takes place in the GAMBIT Collaboration as follows: Scientists choose a theoretical model and build it into the software. The program then scans the values of the main model parameters. For each set of parameters, predictions are calculated and compared to the data from the experiments.
“In practice, nothing is trivial here. There are models where we have as many as 128 free parameters. Imagine scanning in a space of 128 dimensions—it’s something that kills every computer. Therefore, at the beginning, we limited ourselves to three versions of simpler supersymmetric models, known under the abbreviations CMSSM, NUHM1 and NUHM2. They have five, six and seven free parameters, respectively. But things nonetheless get complicated, because, for example, we only know some of the other parameters of the Standard Model with a certain accuracy. Therefore, they have to be treated like free parameters too, only changing to a lesser extent than the new physics parameters,” says Dr. Chrzaszcz.

The GAMBIT Project website gives the following explanation –
“Welcome to the GAMBIT homepage. GAMBIT is a global fitting code for generic Beyond the Standard Model theories, designed to allow fast and easy definition of new models, observables, likelihoods, scanners and backend physics codes.”
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Thus far, ALL previous efforts with GAMBIT and Prometheus have led to dead ends (like all of modern QM physics), but it is worth noting that all previous efforts using Prometheus have been built upon or have expanded upon THE STANDARD MODEL!

What if this code, or at least these supercomputers where used for Mills’ GUT-CP and hydrino model? Entering a theory based upon Classical Laws? Expanding upon Newton, Maxwell equations… essentially used to enter ALL of Mills 30 year research, theories, predictions and equations… tested against known observables in the Universe?

I believe the results of doing so would be extraordinary accurate  compared to all previous attempts, and would be the beginning of creating a computer model/simulation of the Universe to such a degree of accuracy never before witnessed in mathematics, particle physics, Astro-physics and cosmology… essentially the beginning of creating a computer simulation of the history of the Universe, past, previous ;o, present and future… A COMPUTER SIMUALTION OF THE HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE!
(as well as confirming hydrino as dark matter, the expansion/contraction of the Universe, gravitational waves and causes etc.)

Surely if all these Quantum Physicists, Astro-physicists and cosmologists are saying Mills is fundamentally wrong… take a risk and run it on a supercomputer such as Prometheus (fitting name considering!)… take a GAMBIT!

gambitcard
Gambit… ‘the ability to convert the potential energy stored in an inanimate object into pure light kinetic energy, thus “charging” that item with highly explosive results.’ 😀

“The intro to the awsomest cartoon ever! I’m going to walk down the aisle to this theme!”

Environment, Global Warming, hydrino, Planet Earth, Terraforming

‘Terraforming Planet Earth’ – Brilliant Light Power and ‘hydrino’ energy (California, Sahara, Africa, Oceans)

“The application of unlimited, unbounded energy are only constrained by human imagination, ingenuity and ambition” – Dr Randell Mills

Brilliant Light Power Terraforming Application Video
(The music! 😀 … No dolphins? 😦 )

“We need to start terraforming the planet in a positive and beneficial way for the sake of the survival of our species and all life on Earth… because at the moment we’re terraforming Earth like General Zod!…
Take California for example, severe drought and water shortages, catastrophic wild fires… … although when those fires reached Rupert Murdoch’s home, I was privately thinking ‘swings and roundabouts!’… … but we could create a global paradise of abundance if we utilised this technology correctly”

As the human population sets to exceed 10 billion by 2030, the constraints put on the planets eco-system and resources are becoming ever more apparent. 2018 has witnessed a number of clear signs of catastrophic global warming and climate change including continued drought and wildfires in California, severe heatwaves and wildfires in Greece and Europe, continued melting of the Arctic/Antarctic ice sheets, increased intensity in hurricanes and tropical storms, and the slowing of the Atlantic Gulf Stream. It is clear that humans are having a profound and consequential effect on the planets environment and eco-systems, in what scientists are calling the ‘Anthropocene Epoch’. Current research shows that at current living trends, humankind requires between 1.7 to 4 planets Earths to sustain our population demand. (dependant upon whether we choose to live like the average American citizen! :D)
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Hydrino energy is high density, cheap, non- polluting, safe, and deployable anywhere in the world…

Obviously Brilliant Light Power and hydrino energy has the potential to eradicate the burning of ALL fossil fuels globally, thereby cutting global carbon emissions to ZERO!
Hydrino technology can also replace ‘renewable’ energy sources such as solar and wind farms, which would potentially take up millions of square miles of the Earths landmass to host. There is no radioactive or chemical waste, or any pollution of any kind.

But also Dr Mills and Brilliant Light Power envision a world where the use of ‘hydrino’ technologies will be used to transform the planets most inhospitable wastelands and arid regions into ‘lush, liveable, crop-producing expanses’ whilst ‘also preventing drought in already cultivated areas such as California.’

A recent article unveiled plans by scientists to transform areas of the Sahara into a lush rainfall region with abundant greenery.  Although the plan utilises a combination of wind turbines and solar panels, it highlights the possible ways in which future clean technologies will be used to positively alter and transform the Earths landscape.
SaharaDesertRainPower_web_1024
Scientists Have Announced an Incredible Plan to Make It Rain in The Sahara Desert
“Given everything we know about what fossil fuels are doing to the planet, the research offers a little glimpse of how alternative energy technologies could reveal surprising environmental advantages we’re not yet aware of.”
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I believe much more research should be conducted and careful consideration taken into the idea of transforming certain regions of the Earth, using hydrino power only. As pointed out in following article, transforming such areas as the Sahara may have unintended consequences for other regions such as the Amazon rainforest, and Atlantic ocean marine life…
8 Craziest Mega-Engineering Projects That Could Rework Earth
“For one, sand from the Sahara is carried into the air, across the Atlantic, and deposited in South America. The rich dust that falls from the sky, and the rain storms caused by that dust picking up moisture during it’s transoceanic journey both fertilize the Amazon rain forest. No desert, no dust. No dust, no rain forest. During that journey, the dust also feeds a variety of sea life.”

Brett Holverstott mentions in his talk, in regards to how hydrino energy has the potential to help alleviate, if not eradicate :-
Climate change
Ice cap melting
Ocean acidification
The dying of marine life
Being deployable in the third world
The cutting down of the Amazon rainforest
Global city smog
Construction of river dams
… amongst numerous other potential environmental benefits.

Quite simply, this technology has the potential to avoid the almost inevitable human catastrophe that is lurking around histories corner. I.e. Earths sixth biggest mass extinction event (including potentially our own).

I also believe our new understanding of atomic structure and molecular physics (Millsian), could pave the way for new cleaner technologies and sustainable materials in industries other than energy. These may include :-
– Plastics and materials
– Food and crop growth
– Fertilisers and agriculture
– Mining and mineral extraction
– Methods for cleaning up past environmental damage (plastics, carbon emissions, nuclear and toxic waste), essentially reversing the damage already caused by the Industrial Revolution.

“The application of unlimited, unbounded energy are only constrained by human imagination, ingenuity and ambition” – Dr Randell Mills

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Einstein… clever guy… didn’t like Quantum Mechanics! 😀

“Before we venture out into the stars, looking to terraform other planets… maybe we should take a look back at our own and try and reverse the damage we’ve done here” – Danny Hurley

Robert Senftleben: Terraforming Planet Earth
Large parts of the surface of our planet have been devastated by human activity. Terraforming on a human scale is needed to bring these landscapes back to life. The knowledge and technology is there, and you can learn how to use it and participate.

EXCELLENT TED TALK!
How to green the world’s deserts and reverse climate change | Allan Savory
“Desertification is a fancy word for land that is turning to desert,” begins Allan Savory in this quietly powerful talk. And terrifyingly, it’s happening to about two-thirds of the world’s grasslands, accelerating climate change and causing traditional grazing societies to descend into social chaos. Savory has devoted his life to stopping it. He now believes — and his work so far shows — that a surprising factor can protect grasslands and even reclaim degraded land that was once desert.

Update (13/09/2-18) ;D
Gaia 2.0  (Timothy M. Lenton, Bruno Latour – University of Exeter)
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Famous theory of the living Earth upgraded to ‘Gaia 2.0’Famous theory of the living Earth upgraded to ‘Gaia 2.0’

September 13, 2018, University of Exeter

“A time-honoured theory into why conditions on Earth have remained stable enough for life to evolve over billions of years has been given a new, innovative twist.

For around half a century, the ‘Gaia’ hypothesis has provided a unique way of understanding how life has persisted on Earth.
It champions the idea that living organisms and their inorganic surroundings evolved together as a single, self-regulating system that has kept the planet habitable for life—despite threats such as a brightening Sun, volcanoes and meteorite strikes.
However, Professor Tim Lenton from the University of Exeter and famed French sociologist of science Professor Bruno Latour are now arguing that humans have the potential to ‘upgrade’ this planetary operating system to create “Gaia 2.0”.
They believe that the evolution of both humans and their technology could add a new level of “self-awareness” to Earth’s self-regulation, which is at the heart of the original Gaia theory.
As humans become more aware of the global consequences of their actions, including climate change, a new kind of deliberate self-regulation becomes possible where we limit our impacts on the planet.
Professors Lenton and Latour suggest that this “conscience choice” to self-regulate introduces a “fundamental new state of Gaia—which could help us achieve greater global sustainability in the future.
However, such self-aware self-regulation relies on our ability to continually monitor and model the state of the planet and our effects upon it.
Professor Lenton, Director of Exeter’s new Global Systems Institute, said: “If we are to create a better world for the growing human population this century then we need to regulate our impacts on our life support-system, and deliberately create a more circular economy that relies—like the biosphere—on the recycling of materials powered by sustainable energy.”
The original Gaia Theory was developed in the late 1960’s by James Lovelock, a British scientist and inventor. It suggested that both the organic and inorganic components of Earth evolved together as one single, self-regulating system which can control global temperature and atmospheric composition to maintain its own habitability.
The new perspective article is published in leading journal Science on September 14, 2018.
It follows recent research, led by Professor Lenton, which offered a fresh solution to how the Gaia hypothesis works in real terms: Stability comes from “sequential selection” in which situations where life destabilises the environment tend to be short-lived and result in further change until a stable situation emerges, which then tends to persist.
Once this happens, the system has more time to acquire further properties that help to stabilise and maintain it—a process known as “selection by survival alone”.
Creating transformative solutions to the global changes that humans are now causing is a key focus of the University of Exeter’s new Global Systems Institute.”

Gaia Hypothesis: Humans Have Fundamentally Altered Earth’s Self-Regulation System

cosmology, GUT-CP

Possible confirmation of Mills’ ‘Oscillating Universe’ and GUT-CP model? (remnants of a prior Universe)

“I actually emailed Roger Penrose with this last year.”
“Did you get a response?”
“No… but then he is ‘Sir’ Roger Penrose, and what we know of the Queens Knighthood list, is it reads like a God damn sex offen..
“Drop it Danny Boy!”

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Recent observations made by both the Planck observatory and the BICEP2 South Pole telescope, indicate possible remnants of a previous Universe. This possible indication has been interpreted by a number of physicists in different ways, but Roger Penrose of Oxford University believes what is being seen in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data, are radioactive swirls dubbed ‘Hawking Holes’, thus being proof of a previous Universe existing prior to this present one, in what he and his colleagues call the “conformal cyclic cosmology” (CCC).
(It is worth noting these conclusions are drawn mainly from the data from the Planck observatory, and raw data from the BICEP2 is still to be released)

Radioactive swirls in the cosmos may rewrite the origin story of the universe
“The idea is called “conformal cyclic cosmology” (CCC), and what it asserts is that, rather than starting from a big bang, the universe continually expands and contracts, each time leaving behind tiny bits of electromagnetic radiation that remain as the process occurs over and over. The late Stephen Hawking predicted tiny dots of radiation, which others call ‘Hawking points’, left over from this cycle.”

These Swirls of Light Could Be Signs of a Previous Universe Existing Before Ours
“Penrose’s CCC model was developed as an answer to a curious imbalance between measurements of our early Universe’s temperature and the state of order we might expect.
According to him, this imbalance could be accounted for by the death of a pre-existing universe that was there before the Big Bang. Oscillating universes come in a few different forms, depending on your choice of model. Some suggest the Universe is destined to fall back in itself one day.”
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This observation, and it’s interpretation caught my attention, because according to Mills’ GUT-CP, we live in an ‘Oscillating Universe’, eternally expanding and contracting over a period of a trillion years or so (give or take). According to Mills, the Universe is in a continual state of expansion from 9 billion light years to 312 billion light years, and then contraction phase back (every 450 billion years). This process happens because, during expansion phase (or ‘annihilation’), matter is converted directly into energy (through various ‘hydrino’ chemical and nuclear processes throughout the Universe, including our own Sun), which causes spacetime to expand everywhere throughout the Universe.

NOTE – Dr Randell Mills successfully predicted the acceleration of the expanding Universe in his model prior to it’s discovery. He was also the first to successfully predict gravitational waves in to his model.

After the Universe has expanded to it’s peak radius (312 billion light years), and the engines of the expansion phase have ‘run out’ so to speak (stars, supernovas, neutron stars etc.), and most of the Universes matter has been converted into energy… the Universe will then begin it’s contraction phase and the process is reversed. Radiation will create particles, which in turn create atoms, converting ‘dark energy’ into matter, thus contracting spacetime everywhere throughout the Universe.

“The conversion of matter into energy causes spacetime, and thus the universe, to expand, since light has inertial but no gravitational mass. The acceleration of the expansion of the presently observed universe was predicted by Mills in 1995 and has since been confirmed experimentally. Mills predicts that the universe expands and contracts over thousand-billion year cycles.” – Brilliant Light Power

hydrinoexpansionuniverse
Brett Holverstott ‘Randell Mills and the Search for Hydrino Energy’ Pg 283… Pg. 288 “Mills’s universe did not start with a bang. It may have structures that predate the beginning of the expansion by many billions of years.”

It is important to note that The Big Bang Theory is just that… a theory, and no direct evidence for it has ever been put forward. The idea was based upon the fact that the Universe was expanding (prior to knowledge of it’s acceleration, which should in turn discount the theory). Many physicists and cosmologists throughout the 20th century questioned the theory, and by early 21st century a vast array of evidence has slowly accumulated to discount it.

– Reiss 1998. Hubble date showed that the Universe was NOT decelerating as predicted by the Big Bang Theory, but actually accelerating. Unknown to most in science, Mills had successfully predicted this two years prior in GUT-CP model. (this is when the idea of ‘dark’ matter’ came to the forefront of physics in order to account for this surprising observation).

– Space Circles Are Proof of a Pre-Big Bang Universe? (2010) Recycled-universe theory “works on paper,” but details missing, critics say.cmb– 3 Theories That Might Blow Up the Big Bang (Steinhardt and Turok)
“Steinhardt and Turok—working closely with a few like-minded colleagues—have now developed these insights into a thorough alternative to the prevailing, Genesis-like view of cosmology. According to the Big Bang theory, the whole universe emerged during a single moment some 13.7 billion years ago. In the competing theory, our universe generates and regenerates itself in an endless cycle of creation. The latest version of the cyclic model even matches key pieces of observational evidence supporting the older view.”
“We weren’t looking for cycles,” Steinhardt says, “but the model naturally produces them.” After a collision, energy gives rise to matter in the brane worlds. The matter then evolves into the kind of universe we know: galaxies, stars, planets, the works. Space within the branes expands, and at first the distance between the branes (in the bulk) grows too. When the brane worlds expand so much that their space is nearly empty, however, attractive forces between the branes draw the world-sheets together again. A new collision occurs, and a new cycle of creation begins. In this model, each round of existence—each cycle from one collision to the next—stretches about a trillion years. By that reckoning, our universe is still in its infancy, being only 0.1 percent of the way through the current cycle.
The cyclic universe directly solves the problem of before. With an infinity of Big Bangs, time stretches into forever in both directions. “The Big Bang was not the beginning of space and time,” Steinhardt says. “There was a before, and before matters because it leaves an imprint on what happens in the next cycle.”

– As these Forbes articles explain, it is now accepted amongst theoreticians that a singularity within the Big Bang Model is an impossibility within mathematics and the laws of physics.
There Was No Big Bang Singularity
The Big Bang Wasn’t The Beginning, After All

– As Holverstott states in ‘Randell Mills and the search for Hydrino energy’, numerous ‘ancient’ structures are being discovered throughout the Cosmos that seem to predate the accepted 13.6 billion years ‘beginning’.
~Including a ‘quasar that is 13 billion light years away, yet powered by a black hole about 2 billion times the mass of the Sun’ (Mortlock 2011).
~A star smaller than our own Sun, which has almost no trace of elements heavier than hydrogen or helium, with a ratio of helium lower than that theoretically created in the big bang. Dubbed ‘The Star That Should Not Exist’ (which is so sweet! :D)

eso1132a
“Hi! I’m SDSS J102915+172927, in the constellation Leo (The Lion), I’m older than 13 billion years and everyone says I shouldn’t have come into existence in the first place… WELL FUCK YOU!… … What do want? A picture?” 😀

– More recently a gargantuan black hole found in 2013, again throws doubt upon the notion of nothing in our ‘known’ Universe existing prior. I believe many more objects and structures will be found in the coming years and decades that will support Mils’ GUT-CP and his ‘Oscillating Universe’ Model.blackholequasar.png
– Young black hole had monstrous growth spurt
Super-massive object found in early Universe tests theories of cosmic evolution.
“A black hole that grew to gargantuan size in the Universe’s first billion years is by far the largest yet spotted from such an early date, researchers have announced. The object, discovered by astronomers in 2013, is 12 billion times as massive as the Sun, and six times greater than its largest-known contemporaries. Its existence poses a challenge for theories of the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, astronomers say.”

Mills model of an Oscillating Universe is NOT to be confused with other models such as the Big Bounce or CCC, which are still based in Quantum Models such as string or M theory… this is a truly original, more eloquent and simpler model, that has been arrived at through a classical understanding of atomic structure and gravitational forces (i.e hydrino model).
For further details see…
Summary Of Randell Mills’s Unified Theory (Holverstott)

and of course Randell Mills’ explanation itself in ‘The Grand Unified Theory Of Classical Physics, Volume III – Collective Phenomena, High Energy Physics, & Cosmology’
(Ch. 32.7 to 32.9.5 Cosmology, The Expanding Universe and Microwave , The Period of Background, The Period Of Oscillation etc.)
gut-cpvol3

Uncategorized

The last of the Soviet-era bosses makes his exit in Kazakhstan (House of Rothschild owns you!)

asta

Kazakh piece of shit
No knob clown, I’m not MI6… no I’m not CIA either… (fuck me these lot are stupid)

CNN? Does it fucking matter?
The last of the Soviet-era bosses makes his exit in Kazakhstan


Rothschild pitches idea of pre-IPO sales for Kazakh privatizations

President of Kazakhstan praises the Rothschild Company

Investors welcome push to prise open Kazakhstan
During a banquet at London’s Spencer House in April thrown by financier Jacob Rothschild, the octogenarian host gave his guests from Kazakhstan’s sovereign wealth fund a gentle admonishment.

President Nazarbayev meets with leadership of Rothschild group

Rothschild: Kazakhstan supposed to become financial hub of Central Asia
In London, there was a meeting of President Nursultan Nazarbayev with Chairman of ‘J Rothschild Capital Management’ Jacob Rothschild, the press service of Akorda informed.
The two sides exchanged views on the prospects of investment cooperation between Kazakhstan and the United Kingdom. Nursultan Nazarbayev also informed on the plan to create the Astana international financial center and expressed interest in further partnership.
In turn, Jacob Rothschild noted good prospects of Kazakhstan to be a financial hub of the Central Asian region.
as

Uncategorized

Confirmation of Mills and ‘hydrino’ energy in the UK? (Christopher Eccles, Thermal Energy Cell, 2000)

“I’ve been debating just how ridiculously stupid mainstream science, society in general… especially the British… has actually become.

It would seem the British had the chance to jump on the hydrino energy bandwagon some time ago, and it was possibly confirmed by an inventor named Christopher Eccles, and his Thermal Energy Cell.
“For the first time in human history the power of the Sun was been brought down to planet Earth. A multi-trillion dollar industry… the dumb Brits threw it away!” 😀

Mills has filed patents with the UK Patent Office and they rejected them… either told to do so (ahem CIA) or just too fucking stupid.

THIS IS NOT A MISTAKE THE STATE OF ISRAEL SHALL MAKE!

(also discussing whether there is a Jewish Zionist conspiracy to control the world, or whether everyone else is just so fucking stupid it just happens naturally! 😀
I give everyone the keys to a future multi-trillion dollar industry, and they reject it… then in fifty years time people will say “Well, the Jews control hydrino energy and every industry derived from GUTCP”… … well of  course we fucking do you muppets!

ECCLES
ECCLES1.jpg

So stupid that EcoWatts.co.uk is now ‘Dates and Sex Made Easy’ 😀
(a lot easier if you have a multi billion dollar company behind you I imagine)

Anyhoo… if any of the links still work (it was reported in Telegraph and Mail), I’ll leave it in your capable hands brothers and sisters!

http://jlnlabs.online.fr/cfr/index.htm

Christopher ECCLES
Thermal Energy Cell
http://www.ecowatts.co.uk/
Chris Davies, Managing Director, Tel +44 (01206) 322496
The TEC is silent unlike air source heat pumps.
Significantly reduces the cost of heating with electricity.
Has the benefit of economically providing continuous heat generation.
Saves carbon emissions through increased energy output with no additional carbon dioxide generation.
Removes the need for unfriendly night time storage.
Usable with other sustainable and renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic, fuel cells, wind power, Stirling cycle engines, and tidal and hydro power etc.
Is conventionally installed and can directly replace gas based heating system.
Is an economic substitute for heating with gas or oil.
The TEC, compared with ground source heat pumps, does not require a bore hole or a large area of land.

Robert Matthews: Daily Telegraph (UK),18 May 2003; “Take Water and Potash, Add Electricity and Get — A Mystery”
Christopher Eccles: WO 00/25320 — Energy Generation
C. Eccles: US Patent Application 20050236376 — Energy Generation
C. Eccles: US Patent # 6,290,836 — Electrodes
Jean-L. Naudin: The Enhanced Cold Fusion Reactor — http://jlnlabs.imars.com/cfr/html/cfr30.htm
Daily Telegraph (18th May 2003)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/ news/2003/05/18/ncell18.xml
“Take Water and Potash, Add Electricity and Get — A Mystery”
by Robert Matthews, Science Correspondent

British researchers believe that they have made a groundbreaking scientific discovery after apparently managing to “create” energy from hydrogen atoms.
In results independently verified at Bristol University, a team from Gardner Watts – an environmental technology company based in Dedham, Essex – show a “thermal energy cell” which appears to produce hundreds of times more energy than that put into it. If the findings are correct and can be reproduced on a commercial scale, the thermal energy cell could become a feature of every home, heating water for a fraction of the cost and cutting fuel bills by at least 90 per cent.
The makers of the cell, which passes an electric current through a liquid between two electrodes, admit that they cannot explain precisely how the invention works. They insist, however, that their cell is not just a repeat of the notorious “cold fusion” debacle of the late 1980s. Then two scientists claimed to have found a way of generating nuclear energy from a similar-looking device at room temperature. The findings were widely challenged and the scientists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, accused of incompetence, fled America to set up labs in France.
“We are absolutely not saying this is cold fusion, or that we have found a way round the law of energy conservation,” said Christopher Davies, the managing director of Gardner Watts.
“What we are saying is that the device seems to tap into another, previously unrecognised source of energy.”
According to Mr Davies, the cell is the product of research into the fundamental properties of hydrogen, the most common element in the universe. He argues that calculations based on quantum theory, the laws of the sub-atomic world, suggest that hydrogen can exist in a so-called metastable state that harbours a potential source of extra energy.
This theory suggests that if electricity were passed into a mixture of water and a chemical catalyst, the extra energy would be released in the form of heat.
After some experimentation, the team found that a small amount of electricity passed through a mixture of water and potassium carbonate – potash – released an astonishing amount of energy.
“It generates a lot of heat in a very small volume,” said Christopher Eccles, the chief scientist at Gardner Watts.
The findings of the Gardner Watts team were tested by Dr Jason Riley of Bristol University, who found energy gains of between three and 26 times what had been put in.
In a written report, Dr Riley concluded: “Using the apparatus supplied by Gardner Watts and the procedure of analysis suggested by the company, there appears to be an energy gain in the system.”
In tests performed for The Telegraph, the cell heated water to near-boiling, apparently producing more than three times the amount of energy fed into it.
Scientists admit to being astonished by the sheer size of the energy increase produced by the cell. “I’ve never seen a claim like this before,” said Prof Stephen Smith of the physics department at Essex University.
“In the case of cold fusion, people talked about getting a 10 per cent energy gain or so, which could be explained away quite easily but this is much too big for that.”
Prof Smith said he was sceptical about the theory put forward by the company. He conceded, however, that scientists had also been baffled by the source of energy driving radioactivity, as the key equation involved – Einstein’s famous E = MC2 – had yet to be discovered.
According to Prof Smith, if there is a flaw in the company’s claims, it lies in the measurement of the amount of electrical energy pumped into the cell. It is possible that, as sparks pass between the electrodes, there is an energy surge which would not be picked up by the instruments measuring the electrical input.
Prof Smith said: “This needs to be very carefully checked, as there could be far more energy going in than the makers think.”
Prof Smith’s views were echoed by Dr Riley, who said: “There’s no doubt that there was a heat rise but I’d like to see a more thorough investigation of the electrical energy supplied into the cell.”
While many scientists are trying to solve the mystery of the thermal energy cell, its huge commercial potential has already caused interest.
Cambridge Consultants, one of Britain’s most prestigious technology consultancies, has teamed up with Mr Davies and his colleagues to develop a working prototype. “We’ve had a multi-disciplinary team working on this, and we’re perplexed,” said Duncan Bishop, head of process development at Cambridge Consultants.
“We are offering to risk-share on it, as it will need about £200,000 to prove the principle behind it.”
According to the Gardner Watts team, it will take about six months to carry out tests putting the reality of the effect beyond all doubt. The company then plans to develop a prototype capable of turning less than one kilowatt of electrical power into 10 kilowatts of heat.
Mr Davies said: “The technology could be licensed by a company making household boilers for the domestic market. ” He added that the plan is to have the first thermal energy cell devices on the market within two years.
Hot stuff: Ecowatts boss Paul Calver with the device
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/technology/technology.html?in_article_id=481996&in_page_id=1965
How This 12-inch Miracle Tube Could Halve Heating Bills
Amazing British invention creates MORE energy than you put into it – and could soon be warming your home
It sounds too good to be true – not to mention the fact that it violates almost every known law of physics.
But British scientists claim they have invented a revolutionary device that seems to ‘create’ energy from virtually nothing.
Their so-called thermal energy cell could soon be fitted into ordinary homes, halving domestic heating bills and making a major contribution towards cutting carbon emissions.
Even the makers of the device are at a loss to explain exactly how it works – but sceptical independent scientists carried out their own tests and discovered that the 12in x 2in tube really does produce far more heat energy than the electrical energy put in.
The device seems to break the fundamental physical law that energy cannot be created from nothing – but researchers believe it taps into a previously unrecognised source of energy, stored at a sub-atomic level within the hydrogen atoms in water.
The system – developed by scientists at a firm called Ecowatts in a nondescript laboratory on an industrial estate at Lancing, West Sussex – involves passing an electrical current through a mixture of water, potassium carbonate (otherwise known as potash) and a secret liquid catalyst, based on chrome.
This creates a reaction that releases an incredible amount of energy compared to that put in. If the reaction takes place in a unit surrounded by water, the liquid heats up, which could form the basis for a household heating system.
If the technology can be developed on a domestic scale, it means consumers will need much less energy for heating and hot water – creating smaller bills and fewer greenhouse gases.
Jim Lyons, of the University of York, independently evaluated the system. He said: ‘Let’s be honest, people are generally pretty sceptical about this kind of thing. Our team was happy to take on the evaluation, even if to prove it didn’t work.
‘But this is a very efficient replacement for the traditional immersion heater. We have examined this interesting technology and when we got the rig operating, we were getting 150 to 200 per cent more energy out than we put in, without trying too hard.
People are sceptical – but somehow it works
‘We are still not clear about the science involved here, because the physics and chemistry are very different-to everything that has gone before. Our challenge now is to study the science and how it works.’
The device has taken ten years of painstaking work by a small team at Ecowatts’ tiny red-brick laboratory, and bosses predict a household version of their device will be ready to go on sale within the next 18 months.
The project, which has cost the company £1.4million, has the backing of the Department of Trade and Industry, which is keen to help poorer families without traditional central heating or who cannot afford rocketing fuel bills.
Ecowatts says the device will cost between £1,500 and £2,000, in line with the price of traditional systems.
The development of the groundbreaking technology results from a chance meeting between Ecowatts chairman Chris Davies, his wife Jane and an Irish inventor, Christopher Eccles, while the couple were on holiday near Shannon in 1998.
After the inventor showed the couple his laboratory experiments, Mrs Davies, immediately signed a £20,000 cheque on the bonnet of her car and handed it over to Mr Eccles.
He later became chief scientist of Ecowatts’ parent company Gardner Watts, but has since left after ‘falling out’ with the company, according to insiders. Sadly, Mrs Davies died three years ago, so she will be unable to share in the success of her husband’s development of the idea.
Mr Davies, now 75, of Dedham, Essex, was unavailable for comment last night.
But Ecowatts chief executive Paul Calver said: ‘When Jane Davies whipped out her cheque book, it turned out to be a very good investment indeed.
‘She and Chris were always interested in ecology and now it looks as if our heat exchanger system is ready to go on sale soon. We’re producing a device in the next nine months to heat radiators.
‘Most British homes rely on gas, and the Government has admitted there is a problem getting a substitute. Our device will help solve that.’
Sustainable energy expert Professor Saffa Riffat, of Nottingham University, has also led a team investigating the system.
He said: ‘The concept is very interesting and it could be a major breakthrough, but more tests are required. We will be doing further checks.’

Engadget.com
Nov 10th 2007
EcoWatts “Free Energy” Device Rebuffed, BBC Falls For It.
Posted by Conrad Quilty-Harper
EcoWatts and its fake free energy gadget is back in the limelight again, with the BBC Breakfast Show falling hook, line, and sinker in an interview with the company’s “CEO” Paul Calver. Calver stated that “we’re still getting to the question of why it works,” explaining to a BBC presenter his bewilderment at his very own creation. The response from the interviewer? “The point is it does.” Unfortunately, the point is that it almost certainly doesn’t. Ben Goldacre used his excellent Bad Science Guardian column this week to dig up some dirt on the dodgy company, and managed to find a scientist who gave his stamp of approval to a similar free energy gadget four years back: “Using the apparatus provided, it’s true, this scientist could get incredible results: the meters would read zero, and yet water would boil in around five minutes. Because the meters provided weren’t working.” The company that provided this former gadget along with the “broken” meters? EcoWatts.

WO 00/25320
“Energy Generation”
(4 May 2000) Cl. G21B 1/00
Christopher Eccles
Abstract
Methods and apparatus are described for releasing energy from hydrogen and/or deuterium atoms. An electrolyte is provided which has a catalyst therein suitable for initiating transitions of hydrogen and/or deuterium atoms in the electrolyte to a sub-ground energy state. A plasma discharge is generated in the electrolyte to release energy by fusing the atoms together.
Description
The present invention relates to the generation of electricity, and more particularly to the release of hydrogen and fusion of light atomic nuclei.
Normally, fusion processes are able to be initiated only at extremely high temperatures, as found in the vicinity of a nuclear fusion (uranium or plutonium) detonation. This is the principle of most thermonuclear bombs. Such a release of energy is impractical as a means of providing the power to generate electricity and heat for distribution, as it occurs too rapidly with too high a magnitude for it to be manageable.
In recent years, many attempts have been made to initiate controlled fusion processes at high temperatures by the enclosure of a region of plasma-discharge within a confined space, such as a toroidal chamber, using electromagnetic restraint. Such attempts have met with little commercial success to date as systems which employ such a technique have so far consumed more energy than they have produced and are not continuous processes.
Another approach which has been attempted in order to achieve fusion of light nuclei has been the so-called “cold fusion” technique, in which deuterium atoms have been induced to tunnel into the crystal lattice of a metal such as palladium during electrolysis. It is claimed that the atoms are forced together in the lattice, overcoming the repulsive electrostatic force. However, no clear and unambiguous demonstration of successful cold fusion has yet been presented publicly.
The present invention provides a method of releasing energy comprising the steps of providing an electrolyte having a catalyst therein, the catalyst being suitable for initiating transitions of hydrogen and/or deuterium atoms in the electrolyte to a sub-ground energy state, and generating a plasma discharge in the electrolyte. The applicants have determined that this method generates substantially more energy than the power input used to generate the plasma, whilst doing so in a controllable manner.
Preferably, the plasma discharge is generated by applying a voltage across electrodes in the electrolyte and an intermittent voltage has proved particularly useful in increasing the level of energy generation. It also provides a means of controlling the process to maintain a consistent level of energy production over a significant period of time.
The application of a voltage higher than necessary to generate plasma also is beneficial to the process and will be typically in the range of 50 V to 20,000 V and preferably between 300 V and 2,000 V, but may be higher than 20,000 V, whereas in conventional electrolysis techniques low voltages of about 3 volts are used and applied continuously across the electrodes.
The applied voltage may be DC or provided at a switching frequency of up to 100 KHz. The duty cycle of the applied voltage is preferably in the range of 0.5 to 0.001, but may be even lower than 0.001. During the pulse period a monomolecular layer of metal hydride may be formed at the cathode-Helmholtz layer interface and subsequently decays to form gas in the nascent state comprising comprising monoatomic hydrogen and/or deuterium. The waveform of the applied voltage may be substantially square shaped. Whilst application of DC to the electrode does produce the metal hydride and monoatomic hydrogen and/or deuterium, the use of a pulsed voltage has been found to be more efficient as most dissociation of the hydride then occurs between the pulses.
In applications where the electrolyte is flowed past the electrodes it may be preferable to use two separate cathodes, the first of which will be engineered to optimize production of H/D atoms and the second of which will provide the plasma discharge. In this instance the direction of flow of the electrolyte is from first to second cathode. The design of the apparatus seeks to direct the flow of electrolyte to maximize contact of monoatomic H or D atoms with the plasma. The characteristics and magnitude of the voltages applied to each cathode are preferably similar, but may have different duty periods.
In a preferred embodiment, the cathode design and applied voltage are such as to provide a current density of 400,000 amps per square meter or even greater. More preferably, the current density at the cathode is 50,000 amps per square meter or above.
In carrying out a preferred method in accordance with the invention, it has been found that the process may be assisted by initial heating of the electrolyte, which may be water or a salt solution, prior to applying electrical input to the vessel. A temperature in the range of 40 to 100 C, or more preferably 40° to 80° C, has been found to be particularly beneficial.
The ratio of water to deuterium oxide (D2)) in the electrolyte may be varied to control the energy generation. In some circumstances it may be preferable to use “light” water H2O alone and in others to use D2O alone. Additionally, the amount of catalyst added to the electrolyte may be varied as a controlling factor and preferably lies in the range of 1 to 20 mMol.
In preferred embodiments, the method includes the step of generating a magnetic field in the region of the electrodes. The intensity and/or frequency of the current used to generate the field may be adjusted to move the plasma discharge away from the electrode from which it is struck in order to minimize erosion and extend the operating life of the system. Only slight separation may be required to achieve this effect.
In further preferred embodiments, the heat generated by the process may be removed and utilized by way of a number of known and proven technologies including the circulation of the electrolyte through a heat exchanger, or using heat pipes to produce heating, or alternatively to produce electricity using a pressurized steam cycle or a low-boiling-point fluid turbine cycle, or by other means.
The present invention further provides apparatus for carrying out methods discloded herein comprising an anode, first and second cathodes, a reaction vessel having an inlet and an outlet, means for feeding an electrolyte through the vessel from its inlet to its outlet, the electrolyte having a catalyst therein suitable for initiating transitions of H and/or D atoms in the electrolyte to a sub-ground energy state, menas for applying a voltage across the anode and the first cathode to form H and/or D atoms, and means for applying a voltage across the anode and second cathode to generate a plasma discharge from the first cathode.
During the methods described herein, atoms of H and/or D are believed to undergo a fundamental change in their structure by exchange of photons with salts in solution. The applicants believe that this change, and the observed phenomena, can be explained as set out below.
It is well known that a system comprising a spherical shell of charge (the electron path) located around an atomic nucleus constitutes a resonant cavity. Resonant systems act as the repository of photon energy of discrete frequencies. The absorption of photon energy by a resonant system excites the system to a higher-energy state. For any spherical resonant cavity, the relationship between a permitted radius and the wavelength of the absorbed photon is:
2 pi r = n lambda
(pi = 3.14…)
where n is an integer
and lambda is the wavelength
For non-radiating or stable states, the relationship between the electron wavelength and the allowed radii is:
(2) 2 pi [nr1] = 2 pi r(n) = n lambda(1) = lambda(n)
where n = 1
or n = 2, 3, 4…
or n = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4…
and lambda(1) = the allowed wavelength for n = 1
r(1) = the allowed radius for n = 1
In a hydrogen atom (and the following applies equally to a D atom), the ground state electron-path radius can be defined as r(0). There is normally no spontaneous photon emission from a ground state atom and thus there must be a balance between the centripetal and the electric forces present. Thus:
(3) [ m(e) . v12 ] / r(0)= Ze2 / ( 4 pi . epsilon(0) . r(0)2 )
where m(e) = electron rest mass
v1 = ground state electron velocity
e = elementary charge
epsilon(0) = electric constant (sometimes referred to as the permitivity of free space)
Z = atomic number (for H, 1)
Looking first at the excited (higher energy) states, where the hydrogen atom has absorbed photons of discrete wavelength/frequency (and hence energy), the system is again stable and normally non-radiating, and to maintain force balance, the effective nuclear charge becomes Zeff = Z/n, and the balance equation becomes:
(4) [ m(e) . vn2 ] / nr(0) = [ e2 / n ]
where n = integer value of excited state (1, 2, 3…)
vn = electron velocity in the nth excited state.
He absorption of radiation by an atom thus results in an excited state which may decay to ground state, spontaneously, or be triggered to do so, resulting in the re-release of a quantum of energy in the form of a photon. In any system consisting of a large number of atoms, transitions between states are occurring continuously and randomly and this activity gives rise to the observable spectra of emitted radiation from H.
Each value of n corresponds to a transition which is permitted to occur when a resonant photon is absorbed by the atom. Integer values of n represent the absorption of energy by the atom.
Fractional values of are allowed by the relationship between the standing wavelength of the electron and the radius of the electron-path, given by (2), above. To maintain force balance, transitions involving fractional values for n must effectively increase the nuclear charge Z to a figure Zeff, and reduce the radius of the electron-path accordingly. This is equivalent to the atom emitting a photon of energy while in the accepted ground state, effecting a transition to a sub-ground state. Because the accepted ground state is a very stable one, such transitions are rarely encountered but the applicants have discovered that they can be induced if the atom is in close proximity to another system which acts as a “receptor-site” for the exact energy quantum required to effect the transition.
The emission of energy by a hydrogen atom in this way is not limited to a single transition “down” from ground state, but can occur repetitively and, possibly, transitions from 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, etc. states may occur as a single event if the energy balance of the atom and the catalytic system is favorable. Of course, the usual uncertainty principles forbid the determination of the behavior of any individual atom, but statistical rules govern the properties of any macroscopic (>109) quanta system.
When a “ground-state” hydrogen atom emits a photon of around 27 eV, the transition occurs to the ao/2state as demonstrated above and the effective nuclear charge increases to +2e. A new electron path radius is reduced. The potential energy of the atom in its reduced-radius state is given by
V = -{ Z(eff)e2 / [ 4 pi epsilon(o) (a(o) / 2)]} = – { 4 x 27.178} = -108.7 eV
The kinetic energy, T, of the reduced electron path is given by
T = – [ V / 2 ] = 54.35 eV
Similarly, it can be seen that the kinetic energy of the ground sate electron path is about 13.6 eV. Thus there is a net change in energy of about 41 eV for the transition:
H{ Z(eff) = 1 ; r = a(o) } to H{ Z(eff) = 2 ; r = a(o) / 2 ]
That is to say, of this 41 eV, about 27 eV is emitted as the catalytic transfer of energy occurs, and the remaining 14 eV is emitted on restabilization to the force balance.
The radial “ground-state” can be considered as a superposition of Fourier components. If integral Fourier components of energy equal to m x 27.2 eV are removed, the positive electric path inside the electron path radius increases by
(m) x 1.602 x 10-19C
The resultant electric field is a time-harmonic solution of the Laplace equations in spherical coordinates. In the case of the reduced-radius H atom, the radius at which force balance and the non-radiative condition are achieved is given by
R(m) = a(o) / [m+1 ]
Where m is an integer.
From the energy change equations given above, it will be appreciated that, in decaying to this radius from the so-called “ground-state”, the atom emits a total energy equal to
(5) [ ( m + 1 )2 – 12 ] x 13.59 eV
The applicants have found that such energy emissions as take place according to (5), above, only appear to occur when the H or D is found in the monoatomic (or so-called “nascent”) state. Molecular H might be made to behave similarly, but the transition is more difficult to achieve owing to the higher energies involved.
In order to achieve the transition in monoatomic H or D, it is necessary to accumulate the molecular form in the gas phase on a substrate such as nickel (Ni) or tungsten (W) which favors the dissociation of the molecule. As well as being dissociated into the monoatomic form, the H or D should be bound to the catalytic system to initiate the reaction. The preferred method of achieving this is by electrolysis using cathode material which favors dissociation.
The applicants have discovered that the catalytic systems which encourage transitions to sub-ground-state energies are those which offer a near-perfect energy couple to the [ m x 27.2 ] eV needed to “flip” the atom of H or D. It appears from experiment that the effective sink of energy provided by the catalyst need not be precisely equal to that emitted by the atom. Successful transitions have been achieved when there is an error of a s much as +- 2% between the energy emitted by the atom and that absorbed by the catalytic system. One possible explanation for this is that, in a macroscopic sized system, although the transitions are initiated by a close match in energy level, such discrepancies as arise are manifested as an overall loss or gain in the kinetic energies of the recipient ionic systems. It is thought that spectroscopic analysis of active H or D catalytic systems may provide evidence of this.
One catalyst that has been found to initiate the transition to the ao/n state is rubidium in the Rb+ ionic species. If a salt of Rb, such as the carbonate Rb2CO3 is dissolved in either water or deuterium oxide (heavy water), a substantial dissociation into Rb+ and (CO3)2- ions takes place. If the Rb+ ions are bound closely to monoatomic H or D, the transition to the ao/n state is encouraged by the removal of a further electron from the Rb ion, by provision of its second ioization energy of about 27.28eV. Thus:
Rb+ +H { a(o) / p ] +27.28 eV –>
Rb2+ + e- +H { a(o) / [ p = 1] } + { [ ( p + 1 )2 -p2 ] x 13.59 } eV
Where p represents an integral number of such transitions for any given H and D atom and by spontaneous re-association:
Rb2+ + e- = Rb+ +27.28 eV
Thus, the Rb catalyst remains unchanged in the reaction and there is a net yield of energy per transition.
Other catalytic systems can be used which have ionization energies approximating to [ m x 27.2 ] eV, such as titanium in the form of Ti2+ ions and potassium in the form of K+ ions.
The applicants believe that the above explanation is consistent with currently accepted quantum theory as discussed below.
Commencing with the equations of Rydberg and Scroedinger it can be shown that fractional numbers for the quantum theory energy states in H yield possible transitions which result in emissions at frequencies which are in accord with observed UV and X-ray spectra. It is therefore possible that the conditions conducive to initiating such transitions may be artificially reproduced in the laboratory under certain circumstances.
The Rydberg formula for the frequency of emitted radiation from a transition in monoatomic H is:
V = R(h)c( 1 / n(2)2 – 1 / n(1)2 )
Where:
V is the frequency of the emitted photon
R(h) is the Rydberg constant, 1.097373 c 107 m-1
C is the speed of light in vacuo, 2.997 x 103 ms-1
and
n(1), n(2) are the transition states.
It can be seen from the above that, if the resultant energy state of the H atom is that which requires n(2) to be equal to 1/2 , emissions will occur which are of higher frequency than the observed Lyman 2-1 transition in the ultra-violet at 2.467 x 1o15 Hz (about 121 nm). There is, indeed, an observed emission at a wavelength of about 30.8 nm, which appears to be confirmed by recent studies of galactic cluster emissions by Bohringer, et al. (Scientific American, January 1999) and it is difficult for the inventor to conceive of any other quantum-mechanical event which would give rise to such an emission, other than a transition, in accord with the above theory, from 1 to 1/2 in nascent H.
As can be seen from the above use of the standard Rydbberg equation, such behavior of H in the monoatomic state views the conventional H “ground-state” as one of many stable electronically-preferred states for single H atoms.
To summarize, a proliferation of H or D atoms is produced which may have had significantly diminished electron-path-radii by virtue of exchange of photons with their envronment. These atoms appear to be relatively unreactive chemically and appear not to readily take the molecular form H-H or D-D. This is a fortunate property which has significance and enables fusion pathways, as described below.
The fusion of light nuclei, H and D, to form heavier elements such as He is one which has traditionally been encouraged by subjecting the reactants to extremes of temperature and pressure. This has been necessary because there is a large electric charge barrier to overcome in order to bring nuclei close enough for fusion to occur.
Using atoms with a diminished electron path radius, adjacent nuclei may experience a corresponding reduction in electric barrier and internuclear separations may become smaller. With reductions in internuclear separation, fusion processes become more probable, and more easily occasioned.
There are two principle fusion pathways for D atoms. The first is:
1D2 + 1D2 = 2He3 + 1n0
where two D nuclei fuse to produce an isotope of He and a free neutron, which subsequently decays (half-life 6.48 x 102 S), with emission of a beta particle of medium energy (about 0.8 MeV), and a type of neutrino, to become a stable proton.
The second is:
1D2 + 1D2 = 1T3 + 1H1
where the two D nuclei fuse to produce the isotope of H known as tritium (T) and a free stable proton. The tritium eventually decays (half-life 12.3 years), with emission of a beta particle of very low energy (about 0.018 MeV), to become 2He3.
Of the two, the second fusion path is preferred for the peaceful exploitation of its energy yield, because the fusion products are relatively harmless on production, and decay to completely innocuous species within a short time, emitting radiation which can be effectively shielded by a thin sheet of aluminum foil or by 10 mm of acrylic plastic, for example.
When D nuclei are forced together under high temperature and pressure conditions (as in a thermonuclear bomb), there is a greater than 50% probability for the first pathway to be the dominant one. This is because the high temperature process takes no account of nuclear alignment at the point of fusion. It is actually a matter of focusing nuclei together indiscriminately and hoping that enough fuse to produce an explosion. The applicants believe, however, in accord with established theory, that it is the alignment of the nuclei with respect to the charges in each nucleus which ultimately determines the favorable fusion path.
In order to achieve a higher probability for the second, less hazardous pathway, the approaching nuclei need to have time to align electrostatically such that the proton-proton separation is at a maximum. This can only be achieved at far lower energies than those found in a thermonuclear bomb. By the use of entities with diminished electron-path-radii, and correspondingly potentially smaller internuclear distances, fusion can be initiated at lower temperatures (and consequently lower energies), allowing for the charge-related alignment necessary to achieve a high probability for the second, tritium-forming, pathway. By introducing D of diminished electron-path-radius into the plasma discharge which is confined within the water in the vessel itself, fusion may be initiated. Temperatures of the order of 6000° K are obtained within certain plasma discharges and this, coupled with multiple quantum transitions to produce D of diminished electron-path-radius, produces a substantial yield of energy from the two-stage process.
Another possible but less likely fusion pathway for hydrogen atoms is:
1H1 + 1H1 = 1D2 + Beta+ + tau
whereby Beta+ is produced as one of the products.
Embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example and with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 shows an apparatus for carrying out a method in accordance with the invention on a relatively small scale;

Figure 2 shows a system for operating and measuring the performance of the apparatus of Figure 1;

Figure 3 shows a circuit diagram high voltage, high frequency switching circuit for the system of Figure 2;

Figure 4 shows an apparatus for carrying out a method in accordance with the invention on a larger scale than that of the Figure 1 apparatus; and

Figure 5 shows a further apparatus for carrying out a method of the invention which includes two cathodes.

The apparatus of Figure 1 enables the generation of energy according to the principles of the invention in the laboratory. Any risk of thermal runaway is minimized whilst demonstrating that the level of energy release from the two stages is far in excess of that which would result from any purely chemical or electrochemical activity. It also enables easy calorimetry, safe ducting away of off-gases, and of subsequent extraction of liquid for titration (to demonstrate that no chemical action takes place during the operation of the apparatus).
A 250 ml beaker is provided with a glass quilt or expanded polystyrene surround 6 to act as insulation. This can include an inspection cut-out so that the area around the cathode 9 can be observed from outside. The beaker contains 200 ml of water, into which is dissolved a small quantity of potassium carbonate so as to give a solution of approximately 2 mMol strength. A platinum wire 1 is earthed to the laboratory reference ground plane. The anode 10, a sheet of platinum foil of approximately 10 mm2 in area, is attached to this wire by mechanical crimping. A digital thermometer 2 is inserted into the liquid in the vessel. A 0.25 mm diameter tungsten wire cathode 9 is sheathed in borosilicate glass or ceramic tube 4 and sealed at the end immersed in the electrolyte so as to expose 10 mm to 20 mm of wire in contact with the liquid. The entire assembly of lead wires and the thermometer is carried by an acrylic plate 5 which enables of easy dismantling and inspection of the apparatus.
A supply of up to 360 volts DC, capable of supplying up to 2 amperes, is arranged external to the described apparatus. The positive terminal of this supply is connected to one pole of an isolated high-voltage switching unit. The other pole of the switch is connected to the tungsten wire cathode 9 externally of the apparatus.
To operate the apparatus, the solution 8 is initially brought up to between 40° C and 80° C either by preheating outside the apparatus or by passing power through a heating element in the solution (not shown). When the solution is between these temperatures it is either transferred to the above apparatus or, if a heating element is used, this is turned off.
With all connections made as described, the switch is set to operate at a duty cycle of 1% and a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz. It will be seen through the inspection cut-out that an intense plasma-arc is intermittently struck under the water at or near the cathode. If equipment is available to monitor the current drawn, it will be seen that the system consumes in the region of 1 watt when the switching circuit is operating. It will be seen by the rapid rise in temperature in the apparatus that far more energy is being released than can be accounted for by the electrical input. As a comparison, a heater element can be substituted for the electrodes and operated at 1 watt and the effects observed. There is really no need for sophisticated calorimetry to verify that large quantities of energy are being released close to the cathode of the equipment, such is the magnitude of the reaction for the process, as compared to a test with a resistive heating element of the same input power.
The data obtained from a representative one-hour session with this apparatus is shown in Table 1, below:
Table 1
Pre-Run Measurements :
Commencing volume of electrolyte = 0.200 liter
Commencing temperature of cell = 39.200° C
Laboratory ambient temperature = 20.500° C
Specific heat capacity of vessel = 70.300 J. °C-1
Specific heat capacity of electrolyte = 4180.000 J. I-1 °C-1
Steady RMS voltage = 4.0 volts
Steady RMS current = 0.067 amps
Post-Run Results :
Duration of input = 3600 seconds
Final volume of electrolyte = 0.180 liter
Final temperature of cell = 93.6° C
Steady RMS voltage = 6.7 volts
Steady RMS current = 0.122 amps
Time-averaged power in = 0.506 watts
Results Summary :
Vessel gain = 3824.320 Joules
Electrolyte gain = 43181.740 Joules
Radiated power = 38681.030 Joules
Evaporated loss = 48509.240 Joules
Total Energy In = 1820.070 Joules
Total Energy Output = 134196.300 Joules
It can be seen from this table that the total energy input during this test was measured at 1820 J and, taking as a rough guideline that 200 ml of water requires the input of 838 J of energy to raise it by 1° C, then by direct heating the water would be expected to rise by some 2° C, bearing in mind radiative losses. In fact, during the experiment the water temperature was raised from 39.2° C to 93.6° C and considerable steam was also liberated. Furthermore, the calculated energy output of 134196 J does not take account of secondary effects such as light-energy output and Faradaic electrolysis
A system suitable for operating the apparatus of Figure 1 is illustrated in block diagram in Figure 2. A pulse generator 20 supplies a variable duty-cycle pulse waveform to to a high-voltage switch unit 22. The pulse waveform may be monitored on an oscilloscope 24 and its repetition frequency is displayed on a first frequency counter 26. A second frequency counter 28 is provided to monitor the clock speed of the switch unit 22. Power supply 30 is operable to apply a voltage between 0 and 360 V to an electrode of the apparatus 12, shown in Figure 1. The voltage level may be read from a digital multimeter 32. The RMS voltage across the electrodes 9 and 10 is indicated on a multimeter 34 and the RMS current passing between the electrodes is shown on another multimeter 36, by measuring the voltages developed across a 1 ohm resistor 37. The temperature in the apparatus 12 is indicated on a dip temperature probe 38. The switch unit 22 may be bypassed by a push button switch 39 to apply a constant voltage across the electrodes.
A circuit diagram of the switch unit 22 is shown in Figure 3. In the system of Figure 2, input 40 is connected to the output of pulse generator 20. The output 42 of the switch unit is connected to the cathode of the apparatus 12. Two NAND gates 44 and 46 are two fourths of a Schmitt-trigger 2 input NAND gate chip type 4093. NAND gate 44 operates as an astable multivibrator, with its repetition frequency set by a preset resistor 45. The output of gate 44 is fed to one in-out of NAND gate 46, the other input forming circuit input 40. The output of NAND gate 46 is connected to a three-transistor amplifier consisting of transistors 48, 50 and 52. The amplifier is in turn connected to one end of the primary of a transformer 54, the other end being connected to earth. The transformer output is fed to a bridge rectifier formed from diodes 56, 58, 60 and 62.
The rectifier output is fed via a resistor 64 to the gate of an insulated gate bipolar transistor 6 (IGBT). The load of the apparatus 12 is connected in the drain circuit of the IGBT. A 15 kV diode 68 is connected between the drain and the source of the IGBT 66 to protect the IGBT from the sizeable EMI emissions from the plasma discharges in the apparatus 12 and avoids damage to this sensitive semiconductor. A further diode 70 is provided between the drain of the IGBT and the circuit output 42 to act as an EMI blocker in a similar way. A standard 20 mm 5 amp quick-blow fuse 69 is connected between the source of the IGBT and ground in order to protect the device against over-current.
The operation of the circuit of Figure 3 is as follows. The repetition frequency in NAND gate 44 is preferably set to between 4 and 6 MHz. Pulse generator 20 is adjusted to set the duty of the switching. On receipt of an external pulse from the generator, NAND gate 46 passes a packet of 4 to 6 MHz square waves to the amplifier. The amplifier has considerable current gain and enable the primary of the transformer 54 to be driven resonantly with the RC circuit formed by capacitor 72 and resistor 74 which are connected in parallel therewith. The transformer 54 has a step-up ratio of 2:1 and a 4 to 6 MHz signal of approximately 19 volts appears across the bridge rectifier. The impedance of the rectifier output is essentially determined by a parallel resistor 76, such that the switch-on and switch-off time of the IGBT 66 is very fast. Thus, there is never a point in the operation of the device when it is dissipating any measurable power. The load of the apparatus 12 is placed in the drain circuit of the IGBT, which is therefore operating in “common-source” mode to ensure that its source terminal never rises above the high-side ground potential. This, again, is a configuration which uses excess input power. This circuit ensures a rise time of the switched waveform which isles than 10 nS and a fall time which can be as low as 30 nS at modest supply voltages.
Preferred component values and types for the circuit of Figure 3 are as follows:
Transistors 4, 50 = 2N 3649
Transistor 52 = 2N 3645
Diodes 56, 58, 60, 62 = BAT85 Schottky
Transformer 54 = RS195-460
IGBT 66 = GT8Q101
Diode 68 = 15 kV EHT
Diode 70 = 1N1198A
Resistor 47 = 1.8 kOhm
Resistor 51 = 33 Ohm
Resistor 53 = 220 Ohm
Resistor 74 = 56 Ohm
Resistor 76 = 560 Ohm
Resistor 64 = 56 Ohm
Capacitor 49 = 10 pF
Capacitor 55 = 33 nF
Capacitor 72 = 22 pF
A second apparatus for carrying out the invention is illustrated in Figure 4. This apparatus comprises a tubular chamber 80, which may be constructed from a nonmagnetic metal or metal alloy material such as, but not exclusively, aluminum or Duralumin, or alternatively may be constructed from a non-permeable ceramic material or from borosilicate glass. The tubular chamber 80 is constructed in flanged form to allow of its incorporation into a system of pipework via flanges 82 and 84 and gaskets 86. Entering the chamber 80 are two electrodes, the cathode 88 being shaped so as to present a circular plate opposite the cathode 88. The distance between the cathode tip and the anode plate should be approximately equal to the radius of the chamber 80. The cathode may be constructed from tungsten, zirconium, stainless steel, nickel or tantalum, or any other metallic or conductive ceramic material which may contribute to, or occasion, the dissociative process described above. The anode may be constructed from platinum, palladium, rhodium or any other inert material which does not undergo any significant level of chemical interaction with the electrolyte.
Surrounding the chamber 80, and concentric with it, is a winding 98 of enameled copper or silver wire of diameter 0.1 to 0.8 mm consisting of up to several thousand turns of the wire. The purpose of this winding is to create an axial magnetic field inside the chamber 80.
Electrolyte comprising deuterium oxide, in combination with ordinary “light” water in varying proportions, and containing high-molarity salts of, but not exclusively of, potassium, rubidium or lithium, or combinations of such salts, is pumped through the chamber 80, in a direction such that the anode is downstream of the cathode.
The anode lead wire 96 is connected to the ground plane or zero volts. The cathode 88 is connected to a variable source of between 50 and preferably 2000 volts negative with respect to the grounded anode 94, but may be couple to a voltage of up to several tens of thousands of volts negative with respect to such anode 94. To enhance performance of the invention, the negative voltage may be supplied in the form of pulses having a duty cycle between 0.001 and 0.5
The winding 98 is energized with an alternating voltage such as to provide a current flow of typically between 0.5 and 1.5 amps initially. The frequency of the applied alternating voltage should be variable from DC up to 15 KHz and may, in addition, be synchronous with pulses applied to the cathode 88.
Under these conditions, a plasma arc will strike close to the cathode 88. The intensity and frequency of the current flowing in winding 98 may be adjusted to provide for the removal of the plasma arc from the immediate vicinity of the cathode 88 to avoid excessive evaporation of the material from the cathode 88.
The volume of electrolyte pumped through chamber 80 and past the plasma arc may be varied such as to stabilize the temperature of such electrolyte in a closed system at below its boiling point.
Heat may be extracted from the electrolyte by passing it through a heat exchanger before its re-introduction into the chamber 80. Provision may be made to top-off the water-deuterium content of the electrolyte as this becomes depleted by operation of the apparatus. The system may operate at a range of pressures to facilitate heat removal.
A further apparatus for carrying out the invention, similar to that of Figure 4, is shown in Figure 5 on a scale of approximately 1:2:5. It comprises a borosilicate reaction tube 100 supported at one end on a machined nylon support bridge 102. A second machined nylon element 104 is mounted across the other end of the tube. The bridge 102 and element 104 are clamped against the tube 100 by 8 mm threaded stainless steel studs 110.
A first cathode 106 is in the form of a nickel wire mesh. It is mounted towards one end of tube 100 on a stainless steel support 108. Electrical connection to the first cathode 106 is via a PVS-sleeved wire (not shown).
A second cathode 112 consists of a 0.5mm diameter length of tungsten wire provided within a drilled macor ceramic sheath 114, which is in turn placed within a 10 mm stainless steel tube 116. Tube 116 passes through the support 102 and has a perspex end cap 118 on the external end through which the second cathode 112 passes. A PVC funnel 120 is provided around the second cathode and is tapered towards it, with the cathode tip adjacent the narrower open end thereof. The funnel is supported on sleeves 121 provided on the stainless steel support 108.
The anode comprises a 0.25 mm diameter platinum wire 122 which is connected at one end within the tube 100 to a sheet of platinum foil 124. Like the second cathode 11s, the anode is provided within a 10 mm diameter stainless steel tube 126, which passes through nylon element 104 and is closed at its external end by a Perspex end cap 128. Platinum wire 122 passes through the end cap 128.
A plasma deflection coil 130 is mounted within tube 100 between the anode 124 and cathodes 106, 112. Electrical power is fed to the coil via connectors 132.
Electrolyte is supplied to the tube 100 via a brass inlet 134 provided through the support bridge 102 and flows out through nylon element 104 via a brass outlet 136. An additional brass outlet 138 also is provided in nylon element 104 to allow the electrolyte to be sampled during operation of the apparatus. Fuse holders and cable connectors for the apparatus are provided in a unit 140 mounted on the support bridge 102.
The apparatus of Figure 5 is operated in a similar manner to that of Figure 4, as discussed above. The primary distinction is that two cathodes 106, 112 are employed in place of a single cathode. In use, electrolyte is fed through the tube 100, past the electrodes, from inlet 134 to outlet 136. A pulsed voltage is applied to the first cathode 106 such that a layer of metal hydride is formed on its surface during the voltage pulses and subsequently dissociates to form nascent monoatomic H/D. The applied voltage characteristics are selected to optimize the production rate of the monoatomic H/D. These products are channeled toward the second cathode 112 by the funnel 120. A voltage is applied to the second cathode 112 to generate a plasma discharge thereat.
The characteristics and magnitudes of the voltages applied to the first and second cathodes may be similar, but it may be advantageous for different duty periods to be employed for respective cathodes. This cathode arrangement with the second cathode downstream of the first seeks to maximize contact between the monoatomic H/D and the plasma and therefore the efficiency of the apparatus. This is further assisted by the funnel 120.
US Patent Application 20050236376
Christopher Robert ECCLES
( October 27, 2005 )
Energy Generation
Abstract
Methods and apparatus are described for releasing energy from hydrogen and/or deuterium atoms. An electrolyte is provided which has a catalyst therein suitable for initiating transitions of hydrogen and/or deuterium atoms in the electrolyte to a subground energy state. A plasma discharge is generated in the electrolyte to release energy by fusing the atoms together.
Inventors: Eccles, Christopher Robert; (Colchester, GB)
Correspondence Name and Address:
MCANDREWS HELD & MALLOY, LTD
500 WEST MADISON STREET
SUITE 3400
CHICAGO
IL
60661
U.S. Current Class: 219/121.36; 373/22
U.S. Class at Publication: 219/121.36; 373/022
Intern’l Class: A61N 001/18; B23K 009/00
Description
[0001] The present invention relates to the generation of energy, and more particularly to the release of energy as a result of both a state-transition in hydrogen and fusion of light atomic nuclei.
[0002] Normally, fusion processes are able to be initiated only at extremely high temperatures, as found in the vicinity of a nuclear fusion (uranium or plutonium) detonation. This is the principle of most thermonuclear bombs. Such a release of energy is impractical as a means of providing the power to generate electricity and heat for distribution, as it occurs too rapidly with too high a magnitude for it to be manageable.
[0003] In recent years, many attempts have been made to initiate controlled fusion processes at high temperatures by the enclosure of a region of plasma-discharge within a confined space, such as a toroidal chamber, using electromagnetic restraint. Such attempts have met with little commercial success to date as systems which employ such a technique have so far consumed more energy than they have produced and are not continuous processes.
[0004] Another approach which has been attempted in order to achieve fusion of light nuclei has been the so-called “cold fusion” technique, in which deuterium atoms have been induced to tunnel into the crystal lattice of a metal such as palladium during electrolysis. It is claimed that the atoms are forced together in the lattice, overcoming the repulsive electrostatic force. However, no clear and unambiguous demonstration of successful cold fusion has yet been presented publicly.
[0005] The present invention provides a method of releasing energy comprising the steps of providing an electrolyte having a catalyst therein, the catalyst being suitable for initiating transitions of hydrogen and/or deuterium atoms in the electrolyte to a sub-ground energy state, and generating a plasma discharge in the electrolyte. The applicants have determined that this method generates substantially more energy than the power input used to generate the plasma, whilst doing so in a controllable manner.
[0006] Preferably, the plasma discharge is generated by applying a voltage across electrodes in the electrolyte and an intermittent voltage has proved particularly beneficial in increasing the level of energy generation. It also provides a means of controlling the process to maintain a consistent level of energy production over a significant period of time.
[0007] The application of a voltage higher than that necessary to generate plasma is also beneficial to the process and will be typically in the range 50V to 20000V and preferably between 300 and 2000V, but may be higher than 20000V, whereas in conventional electrolysis techniques low voltages of about 3 volts are used and applied continuously across the electrodes.
[0008] The applied voltage may be DC or provided at a switching frequency of up to 100 kHz. The duty cycle of the applied voltage is preferably in the range 0.5 to 0.001, but may be even lower than 0.001. During the pulse period a monomolecular layer of metal hydride may be formed at the cathode-Helmholtz layer interface and subsequently decays to form gas in the nascent state comprising monatomic hydrogen and/or deuterium. The waveform of the applied voltage may be substantially square shaped. Whilst application of DC to the electrode does produce the metal hydride and monatomic hydrogen and/or deuterium, the use of a pulsed voltage has been found to be more efficient as most dissociation of the hydride then occurs between the pulses.
[0009] In applications where the electrolyte is flowed past the electrodes it may be preferable to use two separate cathodes, the first of which will be engineered to optimise production of hydrogen/deuterium atoms and the second of which will provide the plasma discharge. In this instance the direction of flow of the electrolyte is from first to second cathode. The design of the apparatus seeks to direct the flow of electrolyte to maximise contact of monatomic hydrogen or deuterium atoms with the plasma. The characteristics and magnitudes of the voltages applied to each cathode are preferably similar, but may have different duty periods.
[0010] In a preferred embodiment, the cathode design and applied voltage are such as to provide a current density of 400,000 amps per square meter or even greater. More preferably, the current density at the cathode is 500,000 amps per square meter or above.
[0011] In carrying out a preferred method in accordance with the invention, it has been found that the process may be assisted by initial heating of the electrolyte, which may be water or a salt solution, prior to applying electrical input to the vessel. A temperature in the range 40 to 100.degree. C., or more preferably 40 to 80.degree. C., has been found to be particularly beneficial.
[0012] The ratio of water to deuterium oxide (D.sub.2O) in the electrolyte may be varied to control the energy generation. In some circumstances it may be preferable to use “light” water H.sub.2O alone and in others to use D.sub.2O alone. Additionally, the amount of catalyst added to the electrolyte may be varied as a controlling factor and preferably lies in the range 1 to 20 mMol.
[0013] In preferred embodiments, the method includes the step of generating a magnetic field in the region of the electrodes. The intensity and/or frequency of the current used to generate the field may be adjusted to move the plasma discharge away from the electrode from which it is struck in order to minimise erosion and extend the operating life of the system. Only slight separation may be required to achieve this effect.
[0014] In further preferred embodiments, the heat generated by the process may be removed and utilised by way of a number of known and proven technologies including the circulation of the electrolyte through a heat exchanger, or using heat pipes to produce heating, or alternatively to produce electricity using a pressurised steam cycle or a low-boiling-point fluid turbine cycle, or by other means.
[0015] The present invention further provides apparatus for carrying out methods disclosed herein comprising an anode, first and second cathodes, a reaction vessel having an inlet and an outlet, means for feeding an electrolyte through the vessel from its inlet to its outlet, the electrolyte having a catalyst therein suitable for initiating transitions of hydrogen and/or deuterium atoms in the electrolyte to a sub-ground energy state, means for applying a voltage across the anode and the first cathode to form hydrogen and/or deuterium atoms, and means for applying a voltage across the anode and second cathode to generate a plasma discharge in the electrolyte, the second cathode being downstream from the first cathode.
[0016] During the methods described herein, atoms of hydrogen and/or deuterium are believed to undergo a fundamental change in their structure by exchange of photons with salts in solution. The applicants believe that this change, and the observed phenomena, can be explained as set out below.
[0017] It is well known that a system comprising a spherical shell of charge (the electron path) located around an atomic nucleus constitutes a resonant cavity. Resonant systems act as the repository of photon energy of discrete frequencies. The absorbtion of energy by a resonant system excites the system to a higher-energy state. For any spherical resonant cavity, the relationship between a permitted radius and the wavelength of the absorbed photon is:
2.pi.r=n.lambda.
[0018] where n is an integer
[0019] and .lambda. is the wavelength
[0020] For non-radiating or stable states, the relationship between the electron wavelength and the allowed radii is:
2.pi.[nr.sub.1]=2.pi.r.sub.(n)=n.lambda..sub.(1)=.lambda..sub.(n) (2)
[0021] where
[0022] n=1
[0023] or
[0024] n=2, 3, 4 . . .
[0025] or p1 n=1/2, 1/3, 1/4
[0026] and
[0027] .lambda..sub.(1)=the allowed wavelength for n=1
[0028] r.sub.(1)=the allowed radius for n=1
[0029] In a hydrogen atom (and the following applies equally to a deuterium atom), the ground state electron-path radius can be defined as r.sub.(O). This is sometimes referred to as the Bohr radius, a.sub.O. There is normally no spontaneous photon emission from a ground state atom and thus there must be a balance between the centripetal and the electric forces present. Thus:
[m.sub.(e).v.sub.1.sup.2]/r.sub.(O)=Ze.sup.2/(4.pi…epsilon..sub.(O).r.su- b.(O).sup.2) (3)
[0030] where
[0031] m.sub.(e)=electron rest mass
[0032] v.sub.1=ground state electron velocity
[0033] e=elementary charge
[0034] .epsilon..sub.(O)=electric constant (sometimes referred to as the permittivity of free space)
[0035] Z=atomic number (for hydrogen, 1)
[0036] Looking first at the excited (higher energy) states, where the hydrogen atom has absorbed photon(s) of discrete wavelength/frequency (and hence energy), the system is again stable and normally non-radiating, and to maintain force balance, the effective nuclear charge becomes Z.sub.eff=Z/n, and the balance equation becomes:
[m.sub.(e).v.sub.n.sup.2]/nr.sub.(O)=[e.sup.2/n]/(4.pi…epsilon..sub.(O).- [nr.sub.(O)].sup.2) (4)
[0037] where
[0038] n=integer value of excited state (1, 2, 3 . . . )
[0039] v.sub.n=electron velocity in the nth excited state
[0040] The absorbtion of radiation by an atom thus results in an excited state which may decay to ground state, or to a lower excited state, spontaneously, or be triggered to do so, resulting in the re-release of a quantum of energy in the form of a photon. In any system consisting of a large number of atoms, transitions between states are occurring continuously and randomly and this activity gives rise to the observable spectra of emitted radiation from hydrogen.
[0041] Each value of n corresponds to a transition which is permitted to occur when a resonant photon is absorbed by the atom. Integer values of n represent the absorbtion of energy by the atom.
[0042] Fractional values for n are allowed by the relationship between the standing wavelength of the electron and the radius of the electron-path, given by (2), above. To maintain force balance, transitions involving fractional values for n must effectively increase the nuclear charge Z to a figure Z.sub.eff, and reduce the radius of the electron-path accordingly. This is equivalent to the atom emitting a photon of energy while in the accepted ground state, effecting a transition to a sub-ground state. Because the accepted ground state is a very stable one, such transitions are rarely encountered but the applicants have discovered that they can be induced if the atom is in close proximity to another system which acts as a “receptor-site” for the exact energy quantum required to effect the transition.
[0043] The emission of energy by a hydrogen atom in this way is not limited to a single transition “down” from ground state, but can occur repetitively and, possibly, transitions to 1/3, 1/4, 1/5 etc states may occur as a single event if the energy balance of the atom and the catalytic system is favourable. Of course, the usual uncertainty principles forbid the determination of the behaviour of any individual atom, but statistical rules govern the properties of any macroscopic (>10.sup.9 quanta) system.
[0044] When a “ground-state” hydrogen atom emits a photon of around 27 eV, the transition occurs to the a.sub.O/2 state as demonstrated above and the effective nuclear charge increases to +2e. A new equilibrium for the force balance is now established. The electron path radius is reduced. The potential energy of the atom in its reduced radius-state is given by
V=-{Z.sub.(eff)e.sup.2/[4.pi..epsilon..sub.(O)/2)]}=-{4.times.27.178}=-108- .7 eV
[0045] The kinetic energy, T, of the reduced electron path is given by
T=-[V/2]=54.35 eV
[0046] Similarly, it can be seen that the kinetic energy of the ground state electron path is about 13.6 eV. Thus there is a net change in energy of about 41 eV for the transition:
H{Z.sub.(eff)=1; r=a.sub.(O)} to H{Z.sub.(eff)=2; r=a.sub.(O)/2}
[0047] That is to say, of this 41 eV, about 27 eV is emitted as the catalytic transfer of energy occurs, and the remaining 14 eV is emitted on restablisation to the force balance.
[0048] The radial “ground-state” field can be considered as a superposition of Fourier components. If integral Fourier components of energy equal to m.times.27.2 eV are removed, the positive electric field inside the electron path radius increases by
(m).times.1.602.times.10.sup.-19C
[0049] The resultant electric field is a time-harmonic solution of the Laplace equations in spherical co-ordinates. In the case of the reduced radius hydrogen atom, the radius at which force balance and the non-radiative condition are achieved is given by
r.sub.(m)=a.sub.(O)/[m+1]
[0050] where m is an integer.
[0051] From the energy change equations given above, it will be appreciated that, in decaying to this radius from the so-called “ground-state”, the atom emits a total energy equal to
[(m+1).sup.2-1.sup.2].times.13.59 eV (5)
[0052] The applicants have found that such energy emissions as take place according to (5), above, only appear to occur when the hydrogen or deuterium is found in the monatomic (or so-called “nascent”) state. Molecular hydrogen might be made to behave similarly, but the transition is more difficult to achieve owing to the higher energies involved.
[0053] In order to achieve the transition in monatomic hydrogen (H) or deuterium (D), it is necessary to accumulate the molecular form in the gas phase on a substrate such as nickel or tungsten which favours the dissociation of the molecule. As well as being dissociated into the monatomic form, the hydrogen or deuterium should be bound to the catalytic system to initiate the reaction. The preferred method of achieving this is by electrolysis using cathode material which favours dissociation.
[0054] The applicants have discovered that the catalytic systems which encourage transitions to sub-ground-state energies are those which offer a near-perfect energy couple to the [m.times.27.2] eV needed to “flip” the atom of H or D. It appears from experiment that the effective sink of energy provided by the catalyst need not be precisely equal to that emitted by the atom. Successful transitions have been achieved when there is an error of as much as .+-.2% between the energy emitted by the atom and that absorbed by the catalytic system. One possible explanation for this is that, in a macroscopic sized system, although the transitions are initiated by a close match in energy level, such discrepancies as arise are manifested as an overall loss or gain in the kinetic energies of the recipient ionic systems. It is thought that spectroscopic analysis of active H or D catalytic systems may provide evidence of this.
[0055] One catalyst that has been found to initiate the transition to the a.sub.O/n state is rubidium in the Rb+ ionic species. If a salt of rubidium, such as the carbonate Rb.sub.2CO.sub.3 is dissolved in either water or deuterium oxide (heavy water), a substantial dissociation into Rb.sup.+ and (CO.sub.3).sup.2- ions takes place. If the Rb.sup.+ ions are bound closely to monatomic H or D, the transition to the a.sub.O/n state is encouraged by the removal of a further electron from the rubidium ion, by provision of its second ionisation energy of about 27.28 eV. Thus:
Rb.sup.++H{a.sub.(O)/p}+27.28 eV ->
Rb.sup.2++e.sup.-+H{a.sub.(O)/[p+1]}+{[(p+1).sup.2-p.sup.2].times.13.59}eV
[0056] where p represents an integral number of such transitions for any given H and D atom and by spontaneous re-association:
Rb.sup.2++e.sup.-=Rb.sup.++27.28 eV
[0057] Thus, the rubidium catalyst remains unchanged in the reaction and there is a net yield of energy per transition.
[0058] Other catalytic systems can be used which have ionisation energies approximating to [m.times.27.2]eV, such as titanium in the form of Ti.sup.2+ ions and potassium in the form of K.sup.+ ions.
[0059] The applicants believe that the above explanation is consistent with currently accepted quantum theory as discussed below.
[0060] Commencing with the equations of Rydberg and Schrodinger it can be shown that fractional numbers for the quantum energy states in hydrogen yield possible transitions which result in emissions at frequencies which are in accord with observed UV and X-ray spectra. It is therefore possible that the conditions conducive to initiating such transitions may be artificially reproduced in the laboratory under certain circumstances.
[0061] The Rydberg formula for the frequency of emitted radiation from a transition in monatomic hydrogen is:
v=R.sub.(h)c(1/n.sub.(2).sup.2-1/n.sub.(1).sup.2)
[0062] where:
[0063] v is the frequency of the emitted photon
[0064] R.sub.(h) is Rydberg constant, 1.097373 c 10.sup.7 m.sup.-1
[0065] c is the speed of light in vacuo, 2.997.times.10.sup.3 ms.sup.-1
[0066] and
[0067] n.sub.(1), n.sub.(2) are the transition states
[0068] It can be seen from the above that, if the resultant energy state of the hydrogen atom is that which requires n.sub.(2) to be equal to 1/2, emissions will occur which are of higher frequency than the observed Lyman 2-1 transition in the ultra-violet at 2.467.times.1.degree..sup.15 Hz (about 121 nm). There is, indeed, an observed emission at a wavelength of about 30.8 nm, which appears to be confirmed by recent studies of galactic cluster emissions by Bohringer et al (Scientific American, January 1999) and it is difficult for the inventor to conceive of any other quantum-mechanical event which would give rise to such an emission, other than a transition, in accord with the above theory, from 1 to 1/2 in nascent hydrogen.
[0069] As can be seen from the above use of the standard Rydberg equation, such behaviour of hydrogen in the monatomic state views the conventional hydrogen “ground-state” as one of many stable electronically-preferred states for single H atoms.
[0070] To summarise, a proliferation of H or D atoms is produced which may have had significantly diminished electron-path-radii by virtue of exchange of photons with their environment. These atoms appear to be relatively unreactive chemically and appear not to readily take the molecular form H-H or D-D. This is a fortunate property which has significance and enables fusion pathways, as described below.
[0071] The fusion of light nuclei, hydrogen and deuterium, to form heavier elements such as helium is one which has traditionally been encouraged by subjecting the reactants to extremes of temperature and pressure. This has been necessary because there is a large electric charge barrier to overcome in order to bring nuclei close enough for fusion to occur.
[0072] Using atoms with diminished electron path radius, adjacent nuclei may experience a corresponding reduction in electric barrier and internuclear separations may become smaller. With reductions in internuclear separation, fusion processes become more probable, and more easily occasioned.
[0073] There are two principle fusion pathways for deuterium atoms. The first is:
.sup.2.sub.1D+.sup.2.sub.1D=.sup.3.sub.2He+.sup.1.sub.0n
[0074] where two deuterium nuclei fuse to produce an isotope of helium and a free neutron, which subsequently decays (half-life 6.48.times.10.sup.2S), with emission of a .beta..sup.- particle of medium energy (about 0.8 Mev), and a type of neutrino, to become a stable proton.
[0075] The second is:
.sup.2.sub.1D+.sup.2.sub.1D=.sup.3.sub.1T+.sup.1.sub.1H
[0076] where the two deuterium nuclei fuse to produce the isotope of hydrogen known as tritium (T) and a free stable proton. The tritium eventually decays (half-life 12.3 years), with emission of a .beta..sup.- particle of very low energy (about 0.018 MeV), to become .sup.3.sub.2He
[0077] Of the two, the second fusion path is preferred for the peaceful exploitation of its energy yield, because the fusion products are (relatively) harmless on production, and decay to completely innocuous species within a short time, emitting radiation which can be effectively shielded by a thin sheet of kitchen foil or by 10 mm of acrylic plastic, for example.
[0078] When deuterium nuclei are forced together under high temperature and pressure conditions (as in a thermonuclear bomb), there is a greater than 50% probability for the first pathway to be the dominant one. This is because the high temperature process takes no account of nuclear alignment at the point of fusion. It is actually a matter of forcing nucleic together indiscriminately and hoping that enough fuse to produce an explosion. However, the applicants believe, in accord with established theory, that it is the alignment of the nuclei with respect to the charges in each nucleus which ultimately determines the favourable fusion path.
[0079] In order to achieve a higher probability for the second, less hazardous, pathway, the approaching nuclei need to have time to align electrostatically such that the proton-proton separation is at a maximum. This can only be achieved at far lower energies than those found in a thermonuclear bomb. By the use of entities with diminished electron-path-radii, and correspondingly potentially smaller internuclear distances, fusion can be initiated at lower temperatures (and consequently lower energies), allowing for the charge-related alignment necessary to achieve a high probability for the second, tritium-forming, pathway. By introducing deuterium of diminished electron-path-radius into a plasma discharge which is confined within the water in the vessel itself, fusion is may be initiated. Temperatures of the order of 6000 K are obtained within certain plasma discharges and this, coupled with multiple quantum transitions to produce deuterium of diminished electron-path-radius, produces a substantial yield of energy from the two-stage process.
[0080] Another possible but less likely fusion pathway for hydrogen atoms is:
.sup.1.sub.1H+.sup.1.sub.1H=.sup.2.sub.1D+.beta..sup.++.tau.
[0081] whereby .beta..sup.+ is produced as one of the products.
[0082] Embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example and with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings, wherein:
[0083] FIG. 1 shows an apparatus for carrying out a method in accordance with the invention on a relatively small scale;
[0084] FIG. 2 shows a system for operating and measuring the performance of the apparatus of FIG. 1;
[0085] FIG. 3 shows a circuit diagram high voltage, high frequency switching circuit for the system of FIG. 2;
[0086] FIG. 4 shows an apparatus for carrying out a method in accordance with the invention on a larger scale than that of the FIG. 1 apparatus; and
[0087] FIG. 5 shows a further apparatus for carrying out a method of the invention which includes two cathodes.
[0088] The apparatus of FIG. 1 enables the generation of energy according to the principles of the invention in the laboratory. Any risk of thermal runaway is minimised, whilst demonstrating that the level of energy release from the two stages is far in excess of that which would result from any purely chemical or electrochemical activity. It also enables easy calorimetry, safe ducting away of off-gases, and of subsequent extraction of liquid for titration (to demonstrate that no chemical action takes place during the operation of the apparatus).
[0089] A 250 ml beaker is provided with a glass quilt or expanded polystyrene surround 6 to act as insulation. This can include an inspection cut-out so that the area around the cathode 9 can be observed from outside. The beaker contains 200 ml of water, into which is dissolved a small quantity of potassium carbonate so as to give a solution of approximately 2 mMol strength. A platinum lead wire 1 is earthed to the laboratory reference ground plane. The anode 10, a sheet of platinum foil of approximately 10 mm.sup.2 in area, is attached to this lead wire by mechanical crimping. A digital thermometer 2 is inserted into the liquid in the vessel. A 0.25 mm diameter tungsten wire cathode 9 is sheathed in borosilicate glass or ceramic tube 4 and sealed at the end immersed in the electrolyte so as to expose 10 mm to 20 mm of wire in contact with the liquid. The entire assembly of lead wires and the thermometer is carried by an acrylic plate 5 which enables of easy dismantling and inspection of the apparatus.
[0090] A supply of up to 360 volts DC, capable of supplying up to 2 amperes, is arranged external to the described apparatus. The positive terminal of this supply is connected to the laboratory reference ground plane and the negative terminal is connected to one pole of an isolated high-voltage switching unit. The other pole of the switch is connected to the tungsten wire cathode 9 externally of the apparatus.
[0091] To operate the apparatus, the solution 8 is initially brought up to between 40.degree. C. and 80.degree. C. either by preheating outside the apparatus or by passing power through a heating element in the solution (not shown). When the solution is between these temperatures it is either transferred to the above apparatus or, if a heating element is used, this is turned off.
[0092] With all connections made as described, the switch is set to operate at a duty cycle of 1% and a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz. It will be seen through the inspection cut-out that an intense plasma-arc is intermittently struck under the water at or near the cathode. If equipment is available to monitor the current drawn, it will be seen that the system consumes in the region of 1 watt when the switching circuits is operating. It will be seen by the rapid rise in temperature in the apparatus that far more energy is being released than can be accounted for by the electrical input. As a comparison, a heater element can be substituted for the electrodes and operated 1 watt and the effects observed. There is really no need for sophisticated calorimetry to verify that large quantities of energy are being released close to the cathode of the equipment, such is the magnitude of the reaction for the process, as compared to a test with a resistive heating element of the same input power.
[0093] The data obtained from a representative one-hour session with this apparatus as shown as Table 1, below:
1 Pre Run Measurements Commencing volume of electrolyte 0.200 l Commencing temperature of cell 39.200.degree. C. Laboratory ambient temperature 20.500.degree. C. Spec. heat capacity of vessel 70.300 J .multidot. .degree. C..sup.-1 Spec. heat capacity of electrolyte 4180.000 J .multidot. I.sup.-1 .multidot. .degree. C..sup.-1 Steady RMS voltage 4.000 volts Steady RMS current 0.067 Amps Post Run Results Duration of input 3600.000 secs Final volume of electrolyte 0.180 l Final temperature of cell 93.600.degree. C. Steady RMS voltage 6.700 volts Steady RMS current 0.122 Amps Time-averaged power in 0.506 watts Results Summary Vessel Gain 3824.320 Joules Electrolyte gain 43181.740 Joules Radiated power 38681.030 Joules Evaporated loss 48509.240 Joules TOTAL ENERGY IN 1820.070 Joules TOTAL ENERGY OUTPUT 134196.300 Joules
[0094] It can be seen from this table that the total energy input during this test was measured at 1820 Joules and, taking as a rough guideline that 200 ml of water requires the input of 838 joules of energy to raise it by 1.degree. C., then by direct heating the water would be expect to rise by some 2.degree. C., bearing in mind radiative losses. In fact, during the experiment the water temperature was raised from 39.2.degree. C. to 93.6.degree. C. and considerable steam was also liberated. Furthermore, the calculated energy output of 134196 Joules does not take account of secondary effects such as light-energy output and Faradaic electrolysis.
[0095] A system suitable for operating the apparatus of FIG. 1 is illustrated in a block diagram in FIG. 2. A pulse generator 20 supplies a variable duty-cycle pulse waveform to a high voltage switch unit 22. The pulse waveform may be monitored on an oscilloscope 24 and its repetition frequency is displayed on a first frequency counter 26. A second frequency counter 28 is provided to monitor the clock speed of the switch unit 22. Power supply 30 is operable to apply a voltage between 0 and 360 V to an electrode of the apparatus 12, shown in FIG. 1. The voltage level may be read from a digital multimeter 32. The RMS voltage across the electrodes 9 and 10 is indicated on a multimeter 34 and the RMS current passing between the electrodes is shown on another multimeter 36, by measuring the voltages developed across a 1 ohm resistor 37. The temperature in the apparatus 12 is indicated on a dip temperature probe 38. The switch unit 22 may be bypassed by a push button switch 39 to apply a constant voltage across the electrodes.
[0096] A circuit diagram of the switch unit 22 is shown in FIG. 3. In the system of FIG. 2, input 40 is connected to the output of pulse generator 20. The output 42 of the switch unit is connected to the cathode of the apparatus 12. Two NAND gates 44 and 46 are two fourths of a Schmitt-trigger 2 input NAND gate chip type 4093. NAND gate 44 operates as an astable multivibrator, with its repetition frequency set by a preset resistor 45. The output of gate 44 is fed to one input of NAND gate 46, the other input forming circuit input 40. The output of NAND gate 46 is connected to a three transistor amplifier consisting of transistors 48, 50 and 52. The amplifier is in turn connected to one end of the primary of a transformer 54, the other end being connected to earth. The transformer output is fed to a bridge rectifier formed from diodes 56, 58, 60 and 62.
[0097] The rectifier output is fed via a resistor 64 to the gate of an insulated gate bipolar transistor 66 (IGBT). The load of the apparatus 12 is connected in the drain circuit of the IGBT. A 15 kV diode 68 is connected between the drain and the source of the IGBT 66 to protect the IGBT from the sizeable EMI emissions from plasma discharges in the apparatus 12 and avoids damage to this sensitive semiconductor. A further diode 70 is provided between the drain of the IGBT and the circuit output 42 to act as an EMI blocker in a similar way. A standard 20 mm 5A quick-blow fuse 69 is connected between the source of the IGBT and ground in order to protect the device against overcurrent.
[0098] The operation of the circuit of FIG. 3 is as follows. The repetition frequency is NAND gate 44 is preferably set to between 4 and 6 MHz. Pulse generator 20 is adjusted to set the duty of the switching. On receipt of an external pulse from the generator, NAND gate 46 passes a packet of 4 to 6 MHz square waves to the amplifier. The amplifier has considerable current gain and enables the primary of the transformer 54 to be driven resonantly with the RC circuit formed by capacitor 72 and resistor 74 which are connected in parallel therewith. The transformer 54 has a step-up ratio of 2:1 and a 4 to 6 MHz signal of approximately 19 volts appears across the bridge rectifier. The impedance of the rectifier output is essentially determined by a parallel resistor 76, such that the switch-on and switch-off time of the IGBT 66 is very fast. Thus, there is never a point in the operation of the device when it is dissipating any measurable power. The load of the apparatus 12 is placed in the drain circuit of the IGBT, which is therefore operating in “common-source” made to ensure that its source terminal never rises above high-side ground potential. This, again, is a configuration which uses excess input power. This circuit ensures a rise time of the switched waveform which is less than 10 nS and a fall time which can be as low as 30 nS at modest supply voltages.
[0099] Preferred component values and types for the circuit of FIG. 3 are as follows:
[0100] Transistor 4, 50–2N 3649
[0101] Transistor 52–2N 3645
[0102] Diodes 56, 58, 60, 62–BAT85 Schottky
[0103] Transformer 54–RS195-460
[0104] IGBT 66–GT8Q101
[0105] Diode 68–15 kv EHT
[0106] Diode 70–1N1198A
2 Resistor Value (.OMEGA.) Capacitor Value 47 1.8k 49 10 pF 51 33 55 33 nF 53 220 72 22 pF 74 56 76 560 64 56
[0107] A second apparatus for carrying out the invention is illustrated in FIG. 4. This apparatus comprises a tubular chamber 80, which may be constructed from a nonmagnetic metal or metal alloy material such as, but not exclusively, aluminium or Duralumin, or may alternatively be constructed from a non-permeable ceramic material or from borosilicate glass. The tubular chamber 80 is constructed in flanged form to allow of its incorporation into a system of pipework via flanges 82 and 84 and gaskets 86. Entering the chamber 80 are two electrodes, the cathode 88 being sheathed in an insulating glass or ceramic tube 90 and shaped so as to present itself along the axis of the chamber 92. The anode 94 is connected to a similar insulated wire 96 and is shaped so as to present a circular plate opposite the cathode 88. The distance between the cathode tip and the anode plate should be approximately equal to the radius of the chamber 80. The cathode may be constructed from tungsten, zirconium, stainless steel, nickel or tantalum, or any other metallic or conductive ceramic material which may contribute to, or occasion, the dissociative process described above. The anode may be constructed from platinum, palladium, rhodium or any other inert material which does not undergo any significant level of chemical interaction with the electrolyte.
[0108] Surrounding the chamber 80, and concentric with it, is a winding 98 of enamelled copper or silver wire of diameter 0.1 to 0.8 mm consisting of up to several thousand turns of the wire. The purpose of this winding 98 is to create an axial magnetic field inside the chamber 80.
[0109] Electrolyte comprising deuterium oxide, in combination with ordinary “light” water in varying proportions, and containing high-molarity salts of, but not exclusively of, potassium, rubidium or lithium, or combinations of such salts, is pumped through the chamber 80, in a direction such that the anode is downstream of the cathode.
[0110] The anode lead wire 96 is connected to the ground plane or zero volts. The cathode 88 is connected to a variable source of between 50 and preferably 2000 volts negative with respect to the grounded anode 94, but may be coupled to a voltage of up to several tens of thousands of volts negative with respect to such anode 94. To enhance performance of the invention, the negative voltage may be supplied in the form of pulses having a duty cycle between 0.001 and 0.5.
[0111] The winding 98 is energised with an alternating voltage such as to provide a current flow of typically between 0.5 and 1.5 amps initially. The frequency of the applied alternating voltage should be variable from DC up to 15 kHz and may, in addition, be synchronous with pulses applied to the cathode 88.
[0112] Under these conditions, a plasma arc will strike close to the cathode 88. The intensity and frequency of the current flowing in winding 98 may be adjusted to provide for the removal of the plasma arc from the immediate vicinity of the cathode 88 to avoid excessive evaporation of the material from the cathode 88.
[0113] The volume of electrolyte pumped through chamber 80 and past the plasma arc may be varied such as to stabilise the temperature of such electrolyte in a closed system at below at its boiling point.
[0114] Heat may be extracted from the electrolyte by passing it through a heat exchanger before its re-introduction into the chamber 80. Provision may be made to top-up the water/deuterium content of the electrolyte as this becomes depleted by operation of the apparatus. The system may operate at a range of pressures to facilitate heat removal.
[0115] A further apparatus for carrying out the invention, similar to that of FIG. 4, is shown in FIG. 5 on a scale of approximately 1:2.5. It comprises a borosilcate reaction tube 100 supported at one end on a machined nylon support bridge 102. A second machined nylon element 104 is mounted across the other end of the tube. The bridge 102 and element 104 are clamped against the tube 100 by 8 mm threaded stainless steel studs 110.
[0116] A first cathode 106 is in the form of a nickel wire mesh. It is mounted towards one end of tube 100 on a stainless steel support 108. Electrical connection to the first cathode 106 is via a PVC-sleeved wire (not shown).
[0117] A second cathode 112 consists of an 0.5 mm diameter length of tungsten wire provided within a drilled macor ceramic sheath 114, which is in turn placed within a 10 mm stainless steel tube 116. Tube 116 passes through the support 102 and has a perspex end cap 118 on the external end through which the second cathode 112 passes. A PVC funnel 120 is provided around the-second cathode and is tapered towards it, with the cathode tip adjacent the narrower open end thereof. The funnel is supported on sleeves 121 provided on the stainless steel support 108.
[0118] The anode comprises an 0.25 mm diameter platinum wire 122 which is connected at one end within the tube 100 to a sheet of platinum foil 124. Like the second cathode 112, the anode is provided within a 10 mm diameter stainless steel tube 126, which passes through nylon element 104 and is closed at its external end by a perspex end cap 128. Platinum wire 122 passes through the end cap 128.
[0119] A plasma deflection coil 130 is mounted within tube 100 between the anode 124 and cathodes 106, 112. Electrical power is fed to the coil via connectors 132.
[0120] Electrolyte is supplied to the tube 100 via a brass inlet 134 provided through the support bridge 102 and flows out through nylon element 104 via a brass outlet 136. An additional brass outlet 138 is also provided in nylon element 104 to allow the electrolyte to be sampled during operation of the apparatus. Fuse holders and cable connectors for the apparatus are provided in a unit 140 mounted on the support bridge 102.
[0121] The apparatus of FIG. 5 is operated in a similar manner to that of FIG. 4, as discussed above. The primary distinction is that two cathodes 106, 112 are employed in place of a single cathode. In use, electrolyte is fed through the tube 100, past the electrodes, from inlet 134 to outlet 136. A pulsed voltage is applied to the first cathode 106 such that a layer of metal hydride is formed on it surface during the voltage pulses and subsequently dissociates to form nascent monatomic hydrogen/deuterium. The applied voltage characteristics are selected to optimise the production rate of the monatomic hydrogen/deuterium. These products are channelled towards the second cathode 112 by the funnel 120. A voltage is applied to the second cathode 112 to generate a plasma discharge thereat.
[0122] The characteristics and magnitudes of the voltages applied to the first and second cathodes may be similar, but it may be advantageous for different duty periods to be employed for respective cathodes. This cathode arrangement with the second cathode downstream of the first seeks to maximise contact between the monatomic hydrogen/deuterium and the plasma and therefore the efficiency of the apparatus. This is further assisted by the funnel 120.
United States Patent 6,290,836
( September 18, 2001 )
Electrodes
Abstract
An electrode (1) having an active surface for contacting an electrolyte. The electrode (1) comprises first and second metallic materials (2, 3) arranged to provide a number of first metallic material to second metallic material interfaces at the active surface. The invention also relates to a method of making such an electrode (1) and to an electrolysis cell provided with such an electrode (1).
Inventors: Eccles; Christopher Robert (Colchester, GB)
Assignee: Eccles; Christopher R. (Colchester, GB)
Davies; Christopher J. (Dedham, GB)
Davies; Caroline J. (Dedham, GB)
Beith; Robert M. V. (Wall View, GB)
Current U.S. Class: 205/638 ; 204/278; 204/290.01; 204/292; 204/293; 205/210; 205/217; 205/218; 205/223; 205/636
Current International Class: C25B 11/00 (20060101); C25B 001/02 ()
Field of Search: 205/636,638,210,217,218,223 204/290.01,292,293,278
References Cited:
U.S. Patent Documents
4171247 October 1979 Harang et al.
4450187 May 1984 Gestaut
4496442 January 1985 Okazaki et al.
4584065 April 1986 Divisek et al.
4969980 November 1990 Yoshioka et al.
5843538 December 1998 Ehrsam et al.
Foreign Patent Documents
0405559 Jan., 1991 EP
2132742 Nov., 1972 FR
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD
This invention relates to an electrode and to a method of making such an electrode. The invention also relates to a cell incorporating such an electrode as its cathode and to a method of obtaining release of gaseous products from such a cell.
BACKGROUND ART
During electrolysis, the mass of a substance liberated by the passage of an electric current is strictly determined by Faraday’s Laws of Electrochemical Deposition. These laws state that:
1. “The amount of chemical change occasioned by the passage of an electric current is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed”; and
2. “The masses of different substances liberated by a given quantity of electricity are proportional to their chemical equivalent weights.”
The chemical equivalent weight of any substance is easily determined and remains a fixed standard for that substance under all conditions of electrolytic action. It is usually quoted in m.g.C.sup.-1, 1 Coulomb (C) being the quantity of electricity used when a current of one ampere is passed for one second.
If the chemical equivalent weight is represented by z, the mass, m, of any substance liberated during an electrolytic process is given by:
where I is the current passed in amperes and t is the time in seconds.
During normal electrolytic processes, it is not possible to induce a current to flow through the electrolyte unless the voltage across the electrodes of the electrolytic cell is raised to some specific value, which varies according to the electrolyte and the electrode composition. This voltage, V.sub.d, is known as the Decomposition Voltage. Hitherto, it has not been possible to arrange for electrolytic cells to function at voltages sufficiently low to enable of very low-power inputs to the cell.
Any process which can be arranged to run in such a way that, when the calorific value of a liberated gas is higher than the power required to run the electrolytic process which liberates that gas, will act as a net provider of energy. The apparent surplus of energy coming, in this instance, from the bond dissociation energies of the ions involved in the process.
An example of the operation of an electrolytic cell will serve to illustrate the above points more clearly.
Let us first consider a cell which liberates hydrogen gas by the electrolysis of water containing a standard electrolyte such as H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 or Li.sub.2 SO.sub.4. If such a cell is run such that its terminal voltage is 5 volts and the current being passed through it is 2 amperes, it will require a power source of at least 10 watts, allowing for small losses in wires and contact resistances. The mass, and hence calorific value, of the hydrogen liberated from such a cell will be in accordance with Faraday’s Laws and will be proportional to the product of current and time as outlined above. However, the product of current and time is not the same thing as the product of current and voltage, which gave us the power consumption of the cell. In the case of this cell, the power input is given simply by:
P.sub.in =V.times.I
where V is the cell voltage and I is the cell current.
To calculate the power output of such a cell, we need to know how much energy is available from a given mass of hydrogen gas when it combines with oxygen during combustion. This figure is 285 KJ.mol.sup.-1, where 1 KJ (kilojoule) is the energy converted when 1 kilowatt of power is used for a duration of 1 second. Since the chemical equivalent weight of hydrogen is known to be 0.01045 mgC.sup.-1, it can be calculated, according to (1) above, that the cell will yield a mass, m, of hydrogen gas given by
1 mol of hydrogen gas, as molecular hydrogen H.sub.2, has a mass of 2.016 g. Utilising the energy content of hydrogen as it undergoes combustion, we therefore have an energy yield from the cell of: ##EQU1##
It can be seen, therefore, that this conventional cell only produces just over a quarter as much energy from the full combustion of its hydrogen yield as the electrical energy required to make it run. Such a device is not an efficient converter of energy.
Consider now the performance of the same cell if its current of 2 amperes were to flow using a very much smaller potential of only 0.5 volts. The input power is given by the same equation (2) above, namely:
=0.5.times.2=1 W
The output power, however, remains the same as in the 5 volt example, it being dependent solely upon the parameters of current and time.
The 0.5 volt cell, therefore, yields a supply of hydrogen gas which is capable of being burned to provide some 2.9 times the electrical energy input to the cell.
In the past it has not been possible to cause electrolysis cells to operate at the small voltages necessary to achieve this kind of “energy multiplier” effect. The natural barrier of the established decomposition voltage always halted the process some way before the over-unity effects of the cell became evident.
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
The present invention seeks to provide an electrode which when used in an electrolytic cell enables current to pass at a low voltage compared with conventional cells. It is also an aim of the invention to enable the generation of a gaseous product form an electrolyte.
According to one aspect of the present invention an electrode having an active surface for contacting an electrolyte, is characterised in that the electrode comprises first and second metallic materials arranged to provide at least one first metallic material to second metallic material interface at said active surface.
Preferably there are a plurality of such interfaces.
Preferably the first metallic material comprises a substrate e.g. of steel, of the electrode and the second metallic material, e.g. nickel or a matrix of nickel and chromium, is plated over regions of the substrate.
According to another aspect of the present invention there is provided an electrolysis cell for obtaining the release of gaseous products by electrolysis, comprising an electrolyte, an anode and a cathode in the form of an electrode according to said one aspect of the present invention. In use of the cell, the current can be passed in such a way that decomposition occurs at a fraction of the usual required voltage. Typically “energy multiplier” effects of the order of 6:1 are achievable.
Suitably the electrolyte comprises dilute sulphuric acid or an aqueous solution of lithium sulphate monohydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, chromium sulphate or palladous chloride.
According to a still further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of making an electrode according to said one aspect of the invention, comprising plating a substrate of a first metallic material with a second metallic material and removing regions of the plated second metallic material to create said active surface with said plurality of first metallic material to second metallic material interfaces.
According to a yet further aspect of the present invention, a method of obtaining release of gas from an electrolysis cell according to said further aspect of the invention, comprises applying a decomposition voltage of no more than 1 volt, preferably no more than 0.8 volts, e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 volts, across the anode and cathode of the electrolysis cell.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
An embodiment of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with particular reference to the accompanying drawing, in which FIGS. 1 to 3 show three stages in the manufacture of an electrode according to the present invention.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
A known electrolyte cell comprises an anode and a cathode as electrodes in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte. If a sufficiently large voltage, i.e. the “emf” of the cell, is applied across the electrodes, gaseous products (hydrogen and oxygen) are released at the electrodes. For any given electrolyte in water, this value lie between 1.250 volts and 2.000 volts, depending upon the ambient conditions in the cell (temperature, electrode metals, degree of wetting, pH of the electrolyte etc.), and is known as the Decomposition Voltage or DV. It is made up of three component voltages, which add arithmetically to give the overall DV for the cell, namely: the hydrogen over-voltage at the cathode; the oxygen over-voltage at the anode; and the electrolyte breakdown voltage.
An electrolytic cell in accordance with the invention differs from known electrolytic cells in that it functions as a so-called Sub-Decomposition-Voltage (hereafter referred to as “SDV”) cell which is able to operate at voltages well below the predicted emfs which would be expected by summing the three component voltages above for any given set of cell characteristics.
There are two principal parameters of an SDV electrolytic cell which cause it to function in the way it does. The first parameter is the nature of the electrolyte, and the second (more important) is the physical characteristic of the cathodic electrode. These two parameters are considered below.
Electrolyte
In common with nearly all electrolytic mechanisms, an SDV cell will not work using pure water or even, to any great degree, tap water as the electrolyte. The activity of electrolysis depends upon the migration of ions towards charged surfaces, where they act as either donors or recipients of electrons, and there are simply not enough dissociated ions in pure water to enable this to take place effectively. An electrolyte, as well as dissociating into ions itself, will facilitate to a greater or lesser degree the dissociation of the water in which it is placed. The electolyte material is, nonetheless, recycled and wholly conserved in the process and, once charged, an SDV cell, in common with most other electrolysis devices, requires only to be topped up with water, not fresh electrolyte. Examples of electrolytes which have been successfully employed in SDV cells include dilute H.sub.2 SO.sub.4, lithium sulphate monohydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, chromium sulphate, and palladous chloride, although this is by no means an exhaustive list of the possible substances. Those which function by the release of SO.sub.4.sup.2- ions in solution seem also to perform better when acidified slightly.
The Nature of the Cathode
The cathode of the SDV cell has an active surface comprising two different metallic materials with a plurality of interfaces between the different metallic materials. Conveniently the SDV cathode 1 (see FIG. 3) consists of a substrate 2 of a first metallic material and a plurality of isolated plated region 3 on the substrate 2. Suitably the plated second metallic material comprises nickel, or a matrix of nickel and chromium, so as to create interfaces between the substrate and the plating.
At these interfaces in use of the SDV cell, a number of complex electrochemical interactions take place. When a small voltage is applied across the anode and cathode, H.sub.3 O+ (and other+ve) ions are attracted towards the cathode. These ions are absorbed into the crystal matrix of the nickel plated areas but not into the areas of untreated steel. The sorption process takes place in three main steps, namely: the surface adsorption of the ions, accompanied by their partial dissociation into monatomic hydrogen and water; followed by intergranular rift diffusion of individual atoms of hydrogen between the nickel crystals; and, lastly, lattice diffusion of the same hydrogen atoms from the rifts into the actual lattice of the crystal structure. This is not a clathrate process, there being an immediate association of monatomic H into molecular H.sub.2 within the lattice, accompanied by an increase in pressure. The rate-controlling process is probably the surface adsorption as increased working pressure within the cell appears to have little effect on the rate of hydrogen take-up.
Lattice diffusion continues until the interface between nickel and steel is encountered and it is at this point that molecular hydrogen is released into the adjacent electrolyte. The entire process maintains an equilibrium with the ion-product of the water in the electrolyte, new H.sub.3 O+ and other ions being formed at the same rate as molecular hydrogen is being discharged from the cell. It is thought that there are two catalytic, facilitating, reactions at work. Firstly, the transition from integranular rift diffusion to lattice diffusion is believed to be facilitated by the somewhat unbalanced nature of the two outermost quantum groups in the nickel atom, monatomic hydrogen being “ushered”, as it were, by the weak forces within the lattice itself. (Although nascent hydrogen is not itself a polar entity, the existence within any mass of H of two species, ortho- and para-, dependant on Pauli m.sub.s values of + or -1/2, does not rule out some kind of interaction when such a monatomic gas is confined within an electrostatically active crystalline complex.) Secondly, at the small iron-nickel interfaces which occur when the cathode is machined, there is a degree of electron-sharing between adjacent iron and nickel atoms at the periphery of the crystal structure which in some way mitigates in favour of molecular H.sub.2. There are also grounds for considering the existence of free protons within such a intercrystalline confinement and there is nothing in the electrochemistry which would rule this out.
The Anode Process
The anode process differs from that of a conventional cell in that the oxygen over-voltage is rarely exceeded and the reaction at the anode is one of the formation of a (conductive) layer of a matrix of ferrous- and feroso-ferrous-oxide over the plain steel electrode. There is some liberation, albeit slowly, of gaseous oxygen at the anode but this is small in comparison with the ejection of H.sub.2 from the cathode, which occurs prolifically and often (as would be expected given the pressure within the crystalline absorption mechanism at work) with some minor violence when observed under the microscope.
There is, obviously, some likely benefit in obtaining hydrogen from such a process which is relatively free of associated oxygen but, to date, the gaseous mix from experimental SDV cells has not been such as to bring the O.sub.2 level down below the LEL for hydrogen/oxygen mixture, and such cells should not be regarded as being intrinsically safer than conventional ones.
One method of creating an SDV electrode is described below.
The electrode which is to become the cathode in an SDV cell is made by taking a sheet of ordinary mild steel as the substrate 2 and creating on its surface a series of irregularities, in the form of trough regions 4 and raised regions 5 (see FIG. 1), by etching the steel in a bath of concentrated (50-55%) sulphuric acid. The natural impurity of most commonly available mild steel ensures that etching will take place in a random and irregular manner. Mostly, this is caused by the presence of finely divided granular alpha-ferrite which appears to be preferentially attacked by the acid.
After inspection of the surface and the determination of the average size of the nodes or raised regions on the roughened steel (optimally these should be at 0.03-0.05 mm distribution), the surface is passivated in concentrated nitric acid and further passivated in a chromic acid bath.
The roughened surface of the steel substrate 2 is then given a 25-micron coating 6 of nickel by the “electroless” process, also known as auto-catalytic chemical deposition (see FIG. 2). This plating process provides accretion of deposited nickel in the trough regions 4 and thinner deposits of nickel on the raised regions 5.
After coating, the electrode is machined or ground, e.g. using a linishing sander and 120 grit silicon carbide paper belt, to remove the “peaks” of the plated raised regions 5 and in particular to remove the plated nickel from these “peaks” so as to expose the steel of the substrate 2 (see FIG. 3). In this way a plurality of metal-to-metal interfaces are created on the active surface of the cathode between the nickel plated regions on the trough regions 4 of the substrate 2 and the exposed steel surfaces of the substrate. Constant microscopic inspection is required to determine the existence of the correct bi-metallic interfaces on the active surface of the electrode. If the electrode is to be used with only one active surface (SAS electrode), no treatment is given to the other plated surface, which will remain electrochemically inactive during the operation of the cell. If both surfaces are required to work electrolytically (DAS), a similar treatment is given to the other side. After cleaning the electrode in methyl ethyl ketone to remove grease and other machining deposits, it is left immersed in a 0.5N aqueous solution of nickel sulphate hexahydrate at 55.degree. C. for 24 hours, which process acts as an “initiator” for the later complex sequence of ion exchange operations in the active cell.
The present invention envisages a novel cathode and SDV electrolytic cell provided with such a cathode. The invention also teaches a novel method of making such a cathode and a novel method of releasing gaseous products from an SDV cell.
The invention discloses the provision of bi-metallic interfaces on the active, electrolyte-contacting surface of an electrode which produces hitherto unobserved electrochemical phenomena. The use of dissimilar metallic materials on the active surface facilitates lattice diffusion of gases within the crystal structure of the electrode.
An SDV cell according to the invention acts as an “over-unity” cell in respect of hydrogen gas production from the cell. The cell operates at low voltages of no more than 1 volt, preferably no more than 0.8 volt and typically from 0.2 to 0.6 volts. However even lower operating voltages are feasible.

JL Naudin Laboratory:
http://jlnlabs.imars.com/cfr/html/cfr30.htm
Video of Test Run # 1:
http://jlnlabs.imars.com/cfr/videos/cfrv30a.rm
“The Enhanced Cold Fusion Reactor v3.0”
Description
The Cold Fusion Reactor ( CFR ) v3.0 uses a new enhanced design with a 1000 mL Dewar vessel filled with a 600 mL of demineralized water and 41.5 g of Potassium Carbonate, the electrolyte solution used is 0.5 molar ( 0.5 M, ). The Dewar vessel, used as the container for the CFR v3.0, keeps the strong heat and the light energy produced by the reactor. The reduced output of the Dewar neck avoid some eventual projections of the water outside the vessel.
The CFR v3.0 runs at a very stable regime and the power efficiency measured during all the tests conducted is more than 200%.
The Cathode used is a pure tungsten rod ( W ) 3 mm diameter and 25 mm length from tungsten TIG electrodes (WP) commonly used for TIG and Plasma welding. The Anode used is composed of stainless steel grid maintained with a stainless steel shaft. All the wires connections are made with a 1.5 mm2 copper flexible wire gained with silicon.
The CFR v3.0 is powered with a DC voltage through a bridge rectifier connected through an adjustable isolation transformer to the 220V AC power grid line. The voltage input has been measured with a digital oscilloscope Fluke 123 with a Shielded Test Lead STL 120 ( 1:1, 1 Mohms/225 pF ). The current input has been measured with a current clamp CIE Model CA-60A ( Accuracy DC Amps ±1.5%, AC Amps ±2% (40 Hz – 2 kHz), AC Amps ±4% (2 kHz -10 kHz), AC Amps ±6% (10 kHz – 20kHz) ). The temperature has been measured with a type “K” temp probe ( NiCrNi ) connected on a VC506 digital multimeter ( -20°C to +1200 °C with an accuracy of +/- 3% ).
Run # 1 ~ Test procedure :
1) The temperature of the K2CO3 solution in the CFR has been set initially to 83°C.
2) The weight of the CFR has been measured initially, it was 1336 g.
3) The power supply has been switched on continuously and the Voltage/Current datas has been recorded in the Fluke 123 digital oscilloscope used as a data logger, up to a temperature of 102°C.
4) Then the weight of the CFR has been measured, it was 1292 g.
The run time of the CFR has been 124.8 seconds.
The Voltage/Current datas logged give an average electrical power input of 574.8 Watts during 124.8 seconds, so this gives :
ELECTRICAL ENERGY INPUT = 71739 Joules
The evaporated water in the CFR during the full boiling was 44 mL. We know that we need 2260 J/g to vaporize water. The temperature rise of the 600 mL was 19°C. So, this gives :
ENERGY OUTPUT = ( 44 x 2260 ) + ( 600 x 19 x 4.18 ) = 147092 Joules
Power OUTPUT = 1178.6 Watts, Net Power Gain = 603.8 Watts
Energy OUTPUT/INPUT = 147092 / 71739 = 2.05
Run # 2 ~ Test procedure :
1) The temperature of the K2CO3 solution in the CFR has been set initially to 86°C.
2) The weight of the CFR has been measured initially, it was 1334 g.
3) The power supply has been switched on continuously and the Voltage/Current datas has been recorded in the Fluke 123 digital oscilloscope used as a data logger, up to a temperature of 103°C.
4) Then the weight of the CFR has been measured, it was 1286 g.
The run time of the CFR has been 127.2 seconds.
The Voltage/Current datas logged give an average electrical power input of 518.2 Watts during 127.2 seconds, so this gives :
ELECTRICAL ENERGY INPUT = 65918 Joules
The evaporated water in the CFR during the full boiling was 48 mL. We know that we need 2260 J/g to vaporize water. The temperature rise of the 600 mL was 17°C. So, this gives :
ENERGY OUTPUT = ( 48 x 2260 ) + ( 600 x 17 x 4.18 ) = 151116 Joules
Power OUTPUT = 1188 Watts, Net Power Gain = 669.8 Watts
Energy OUTPUT/INPUT = 151116 / 65918 = 2.29
After a lot of tests runs, some small longitudinal cracks are visible on the pure W cathode; these small fractures are produced by the Hydrogen Embrittlement Cracking effect ( HEC ) on the tungsten.
Visit the Naudin Lab website for complete details…

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New Horizon – The anti-Semitism Fest Where Russian Spies, Code Pink, David Duke and the Nation of Islam Make Friends and Influence People

“WATERSHIP DOWN! 😀 A story about bunny wabbits… not just any bunny wabbits… but Jewish bunny wabbits!” ;D
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The anti-Semitism Fest Where Russian Spies, Code Pink, David Duke and the Nation of Islam Make Friends and Influence People

When a former U.S. intelligence officer was charged with spying for Iran, attention focused on the Tehran conference where she was radicalized. Meet New Horizon’s bizarre collage of neo-Nazis and anti-imperialists, recruiters for Russian subversion, and unmitigated anti-Semitism
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At how many conferences can you be guaranteed to meet Iranian Revolutionary Guards, Russian imperialists, anti-Ukrainian fascists, Chinese spies, Qaddafi devotees, Corbyn fans, Assad apologists, neo-Nazis, Trump devotees, French Holocaust deniers, Western anti-war feminists, African American separatists, Venezuelan socialists and anti-Semites of every conceivable form and type?
There’s really only one, and it’s run by an organization that the U.S. Treasury designates as a front for the Iranian regime’s most hardline power-brokers.
And the New Horizon conferences recently achieved another layer of infamy this February, when former U.S. Air Force intelligence officer Monica Witt was charged with helping Iran launch a cyber-spying operation on her erstwhile intelligence community colleagues. Witt attended the conference in 2012, and at the 2013 she attended again – and defected to Iran, where she remains.

For years, New Horizon has drawn a host of far left and hard right ideologues – from Robert Faurisson to CodePink to the Nation of Islam – from the underbelly of European and North Atlantic political life to consort with Iranian officials, and with Alexander Dugin, the rising Russian fascist ideologue, occult philosopher and guru to Donald Trump’s alt-right base.
“We are in a transition of the unipolar moment,” Dugin declared, during his keynote speech at last year’s conference. With the 9/11 attacks and rise of Putin in Russia came the emergence of the “multipolar world,” Dugin told the assemblage of anti-Semites, conspiracy theorists and acolytes of his “neo-Eurasianist” ideology, defined by the “rise of China, the resistance of Iran against globalization, [and] the growth of [the] populist moment in the West. Trump’s election was a sign that the American people have chosen multipolarity.”

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That “multipolarity” really means, Dugin-style, a “traditionalist” federation of ethnostates throughout Eurasia which, he hopes, will be engineered by far right parties and states such as the Austrian Freedom Party, Italy’s League, Iran and Syria – with Moscow as a kind of de facto imperial center. The Kremlin both openly and quietly facilitates and funds this political pivot away from NATO and a united Europe, through all manner of influence and funding campaigns.

New Horizon’s annual conference of “the International Institute of Independent Thinkers and Artists,” along with sister conferences “Hollywoodism” and “All Against Arrogance,” has also played a curious role in hosting shadowy figures who, like Witt, end up involved in international espionage.

According to a statement by the U.S. Department of Justice announcing sanctions against the organization in the wake of the Witt case, “New Horizon hosts international conferences that have provided Iranian intelligence officers a platform to recruit and collect damaging information from attendees, while propagating anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial.”
But it’s not just for Iran that the conferences have become a recruitment-pool-for-subversion-and fascism bonanza.
Mateusz Piskorski was a repeat visitor to New Horizon conferences. A Polish activist who set up a Duginist think tank in Warsaw, Piskorski went on to monitor fraudulent elections in Crimea, and then set up his own party, Zmiana (Change), aiming to fuse left and right into an illiberal populist movement.

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In 2015, Piskorski attended the “All Against Arrogance” conference featuring Dugin and conspiracy theorist Wayne Madsen, and attended by ambassadors from Venezuela, Bolivia, and Cuba. By the end of the following year, Piskorski was in jail, charged with spying for both China and Russia.

Then there was Piskorsi’s pal, German journalist Manuel Ochsenreiter, who also founded a Duginist think tank based in Berlin of which Piskorski was the Vice Director, contributes writings and video for Dugin’s own Katehon think tank, and was, for four years, a regular participant as an “expert” in German and Middle East affairs for the Kremlin-funded RT News .
At the same time, Ochsenreiter had another “journalistic” interest: he was the editor of a neo-Nazi revisionist magazine, Zuerst!, which pledges to “serve German – not foreign – interests” and preserve “German ethnic identity” against, yes, against – “de-nazification”.
While working his way up the ladder of the far-right Alternative for Germany, the proceedings of a Polish trial laid bare his alleged payment of 1,000 Euros to a fascist Polish associate to go to Ukraine and firebomb a Hungarian cultural center. The ideas was for the culprits to pose as Ukrainian Nazis, hoping that the false flag would set off a firestorm of anti-Ukrainian revanchism in Hungary, increasing the alienation of the pro-EU administration in Ukraine from its neighbors. Polish authorities believe Ochsenreiter’s actions are only one part in an intricate fascist network operating at the behest of Russia’s secret services.
Dugin, himself, is no stranger to international intrigue. His patron, Konstantin Malofeev, has helped bankroll pro-Russian forces in Eastern Ukraine, many of whom are Duginists, and his colleague, Sergei Glazyev, is Putin’s advisor on Eurasian integration.

Like Dugin, Glazyev supports the convergence of left and right-wing ideas in the service of an illiberal geopolitical agenda, which often converge with older networks organized around the late fascist agitator and crank Lyndon LaRouche, who built a worldwide cult following based on conspiracy theories, economic doom, anti-Semitism, homophobia and racism. LaRouche network activists at the conferences have included Webster Tarpley and William Engdahl.

https://twitter.com/areidross/status/1055907584752869376/photo/1?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1055907584752869376&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.haaretz.com%2Fworld-news%2F.premium-russia-s-role-in-an-anti-semitism-fest-for-fascists-feminists-spies-and-neo-nazi-1.7003563

A final example of the dizzying international crockpot of New Horizon participants is Caleb Maupin. Once an organizer with the syncretic Stalinist party Workers World, and an Occupy Wall Street enthusiast, he saw the Duginist light at the 2014 New Horizon conference. He explained his conversion from the “hedonism of the [Marxist-Leninist] left” to “populism” in a discussion with Dugin and other far-right activists in Moscow last year, in which he applauded Donald Trump.

That led him to become the UN correspondent for Iran’s anti-Semitic English language Press TV, then to report for RT, and to board an Iranian ship claiming to be on a “humanitarian mission” to Yemen in 2015 that various countries charged was smuggling arms to the Houthi terrorist group, to get involved with the Students and Youth for a New America and declare the left “panders to blacks,” and to organize a debate with one of the headline speakers at the Charlottesville neo-Nazi rally, Augustus Invictus, who has had this to say about whether six million Jews died in the Holocaust: “I am still waiting to see those facts.”
How has Iran become a magnet for so many unsavory kooks and spooks?
Anton Shekhovtsov, author of Russia and the European Far Right, sees it as part of a long tradition. “For Eurasianism, Iran is very important. Geopolitically speaking, they guess that Iran is an ally in the fight against globalism and the U.S. And there’s a deep and longstanding fascination by the European far right with Third World authoritarian regimes.”

https://twitter.com/kshahrooz/status/1096144233084403712/photo/1?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1096144233084403712&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.haaretz.com%2Fworld-news%2F.premium-russia-s-role-in-an-anti-semitism-fest-for-fascists-feminists-spies-and-neo-nazi-1.7003563

Apart from the central role for Putin’s Russia, the warmth towards authoritarians is certainly borne out by various attendees. Syrian dictator Bashar Assad is a unifying figure of celebration, as he is among far left and right circles more widely. Libya’s former dictator Muammar Qaddafi’s devotees are there, too. It’s worth remembering how Saddam Hussein was an object of pilgrimage for the European and U.S. far right, and some from the left.

“For Iran, it’s legitimacy. They’re seeking some legitimacy,” Shekhovtsov continues. “Some of them probably believe that [conference attendees] have some leverage, that they can somehow modify public opinion in the U.S.”
There are indeed plenty of New Horizon attendees who have served in U.S. government service and could be thought of as possible agents of influence – on the extreme fringes of American political life.
They include the State Department veteran banned by Twitter for harassment, Peter Van Buren, ex-U.S. Psychological Operations Battalion officer Scott Bennett, and former CIA counter-terrorism specialist and Assad truther Philip Giraldi.
The latter is the executive director Council for the National Interest and writes for the American Herald Tribune, a conspiracy-theory “news site” cited by Alex Jones – both of which are official “friends” of the conference. Giraldi enjoyed a moment of fame (or infamy) when ex-CIA spy Valerie Plame retweeted, doubled down on, then apologized for having tweeted his 2017 far-right Unz Review column, “America’s Jews are Driving America’s Wars,” in which Giraldi also opined that Jews should be labelled when appearing on television, “like a warning label on a bottle of poison.”
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Partial list of the current official ‘friends’ of the New Horizon conferences in Iran, according to the conference websiteNew Horizon website
New Horizon has also attracted controversial U.S. political figures like former Alaska Senator Mike Gravel and current Virginia State Senator Richard H. Black, who likes to visit Bashar al-Assad and then spout pro-Assad propaganda on Hezbollah-affiliated TV networks. In 2018 he claimed that Britain’s MI6 was planning a fake chemical weapons attack on Syria, using White Helmets “actors” in Syria, which it would blame on Assad and be a casus belli for the West.
As you may have gathered from this survey of the Iran conferences’ participants, on top of a commitment to a radical undermining of American “imperialist” influence, and a sympathy for authoritarianism, fascism and subterfuge, another key feature, if not requirement, of New Horizon attendees is uncompromising anti-Semitism.
It is at its most grotesquely explicit when dedicated U.S. far-right anti-Semites are given a platform, such as Mark Weber, longtime journal editor of the Holocaust-denying Institute for Historical Review, whose worldview is summed up by his 1989 statement, “The Holocaust hoax is a religion”; and Kevin Barrett, an anti-Semitic ideologue who blames neoconservative Zionists for 9/11 and believes “Al Qaeda is Israeli.”
Of course, David Duke, former KKK head and prolific neo-Nazi racist, has apparently attended, and conducted an interview there with one-time ecology activist and now “pro-Palestinian” far right figure Ken O’Keefe. O’Keefe has the distinction of once addressing a far-right gathering in London where every ten words or so that came out of his mouth included the phrase “fucking Jews.”
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New Horizon Conference Facebook post, with the text: “Down with Israel.” February 2018Facebook
In case of any confusion in terms of terminology, even the most superficial perusal of the speeches and social media posts from the Iran conferences shows a complete conflation between the terms “Zio,” “Zionism” and “Jews.” It’s worth remembering that “Zio” didn’t become a common anti-Semitic slur until Duke innovated its use over the past decade as a more “subtle,” less legally actionable term for “Jew.”
The term has gained traction on the far left in recent years, especially in Britain where it’s been used by the pro-Corbyn far left, and in the U.S. progressive spaces.
Duke doesn’t even both to keep the rhetorical Zios-not-Jews mask on when he discusses his enthusiasm for the Iran conferences, clearly channeling the conference atmosphere:
“The real reason why the Zi0nist Supremacists really hate Iran is because that nation is currently the only country which dares to publicly tell the truth about Jewish Supremacy in the world today.”

Another serial feature of the conference’s anti-Semitism is straight-out Holocaust denial.
When former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad gave the conference convocation in 2012, he also presented an award for “courage, strength, and force” to French Holocaust denier Robert Faurisson.
Faurisson’s contribution to the audience was a paper on “Hollywoodism’s part in creating the myth of ‘the Holocaust’ [also known as] the ‘Shoah Business’…[which] serves to justify ad infinitum new wars and new crusades.'” He urged Iran to make use of the “poor man’s atomic bomb” – Holocaust revisionism – to disarm and delegitimize the warmongerers.
Some of the New Horizon participants are clearly useful idiots, looking to make friends and contacts, who don’t fully comprehend their complicity in a fascism-friendly, dictator-washing espionage recruitment pool. Other are willing idiots, who recognize on some level they’re coordinating with Iran’s regime machinery and a global class of pro-Kremlin agitators, but don’t actually understand the extent to which they are actually agents of those forces – despite Iran’s exploitation of their presence on social media and state television.
The third category of participants is willing assets: those who eagerly seek the media exposure offered by Iran and Russia and are committed to the conference’s transnational, ideological milieu, and come to Iran to trade tips about how to undermine the “imperialist,” Zionist-controlled governments of the U.S. and Europe.

For these figures, Iran is a revolutionary model, a “point of the spear” against “Zionism,” AKA the evil neocons behind 9/11, AKA the demonic impostors who call themselves Jews (a tenet of the Nation of Islam, for instance, whose newspaper is another official “friend” of the conference.)
Some openly advocate the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, insisting that there is a cabal of Jews/Zios ruling the world through their financial institutions, while celebrating Iran as “the capital of the free world,” as one speaker put it.
The enthusiasm of such self-described “anti-imperialists” an anti-Semitic conference in Iran that foregrounds a Russian fascist, and the real-world boost the conference gives to subversion throughout Europe and the U.S., exposes the delusions, and the danger, of advocates pushing the innocuous-sounding aspiration of a Duginist-style “multipolar world.”
David Duke’s synopsis of that December 2013 interview, conducted “at the site ot [sic] the Hollywoodism Conference in Tehran,” presents a perfect encapsulation of the climate year after year in that Teheran hall.
The conference, in his words, “exposes the Zio control of Hollywood which not only promotes lies about the enemies of Jewish extremism, but literally poisons the hearts and minds of hundreds of millions of people in the West and all over the world. Once more it is shown that Iran is on the side of morality, love, family, and the Zionists are the side of hate, war, degeneracy, violence and blood as well as torture and genocide!”

Alexander Reid Ross is a Lecturer in Geography at Portland State University. He is the author of Against the Fascist Creep (AK Press, 2017). Twitter: @areidross

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As Trump escalates rhetoric, Iran’s wartime preparations include terrorist attacks and assassinations (including the UK!)… Iran is MAJOR THREAT to Britain – US issues terror warning to UK

“Look… SIS… I only answer directly to Israel… if you want information, send Younger to Israel (again). I refuse to deal with London (unless it’s Rothschild)… … Why? Erm? Because you couldn’t organise a fucking bum rape in a barracks!”
(And the CIA can fuck off an all!)

TV report: MI6 spy chief makes secret Israel trip amid new Iran nuclear activity
Channel 13: Alex Younger holds talks with Mossad chief as Iran renews centrifuge production; Israeli assessment: Regime has not yet made political decision to break out to bomb

Iran is MAJOR THREAT to Britain – US issues terror warning to UK
IRAN remains a considerable terror threat to UK security despite increased sanctions imposed on Tehran, a US counter-terror chief has warned.
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As Trump escalates rhetoric, Iran’s wartime preparations include terrorist attacks and assassinations

In July 2017, Ahmadreza Doostdar, a dual U.S.-Iranian citizen, visited the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago, where FBI agents surveilled him performing what appeared to be a surreptitious exchange of information — a brush pass — with a woman in one of the museum’s rooms.
After leaving the museum, Doostdar walked toward two nearby Jewish centers, snapping photos with his phone camera, appearing to pay particular attention to entrances and exits, including a wrought iron fence at the perimeter of one the buildings. Doostdar then traveled to Los Angeles where, according to U.S. prosecutors, he met with another Iranian man and tasked him with collecting information on U.S.-based members of Mujahedeen-e-Khalq, an Iranian opposition group listed as a terrorist organization by the United States until 2012.
The details of Doostdar’s alleged activities in the United States were revealed in August 2018 when the Justice Department unsealed an indictment against him, claiming he was acting as an Iranian intelligence operative.
Iranian espionage is nothing new, but the charges against Doostdar, and other recent court cases, including the indictment of a former Air Force linguist who defected to Iran in 2013, highlight what the U.S. intelligence community sees as an increasingly worrying part of Tehran’s covert strategy. Iranian operatives are compiling what are known as “target packages” to undertake prospective future assassinations and terrorist attacks, according to more than half a dozen former U.S. intelligence officials.
The Department of Defense, CIA and FBI declined to comment. The Iranian Mission to the United Nations did not respond to a request for comment.
While it is common practice for intelligence services to create target packages — detailed dossiers “assembled to enable an intelligence or military unit to find, fix, track and neutralize a threat,” according to the indictment of Monica Witt, the American defector — Iran is unique in using them to plan terrorist-type attacks, in case overt hostilities were to break out between Washington and Tehran, say these former officials. Witt, in fact, was a central part of that strategy, providing information that was used to prepare for assassinations of U.S. and Israeli intelligence personnel in Europe, says one of those former officials.
Unlike other major U.S. adversaries, such as Russia and China, Iran’s relative military weakness has led it to focus on preparations to attack “softer” targets, such as U.S. government facilities and personnel, and even civilian institutions like synagogues. These preparatory intelligence activities have been mostly focused abroad, but have also involved targets within the United States. “From a resource perspective,” notes one former senior official, “Iran’s operating philosophy is ‘Terrorism works, so why not use it?’”
The regime in Tehran has cased potential terrorist targets in the past that could be used to retaliate against the United States, says Douglas Wise, a former career senior CIA officer who served as deputy director of the Defense Intelligence Agency from 2014 to 2016. The Pentagon is, in fact, worried less about Iran’s conventional forces than about Tehran’s ability to conduct terrorist attacks, or what is called “asymmetric warfare” in military parlance. “It’s low cost and flexible — it can create casualties, disrupt U.S. facilities, interrupt business, put obstacles in front of diplomacy and undermine confidence with our allies and embolden our adversaries,” he said. “From the Iranian perspective, it plays into their strengths.”
While it’s not always clear why Iranian intelligence is interested in a particular location — and the United States also surveils a variety of foreign targets — Iran’s strategy is clearly different, says one former senior intelligence official.

For Iran, said the former official, it’s “‘You bomb us, we’ll blow something of yours up.’”
The U.S. government has long accused Iran of being involved in terrorist attacks, citing its role, via Hezbollah and other proxies, in the 1983 bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut, which killed 241 U.S. troops, and of the U.S. Embassy in Lebanon that same year, which killed 63. Iran also is suspected of directing several bombings in the 1990s, including of the Israeli Embassy in Argentina, a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires and the 1996 Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia, which killed 19 U.S. military officers.
Terrorism may be “the best tool the Iranians have, but if you want to do it right, it takes a great deal of planning,” says Wise. “It can take months or years to collect the necessary information and winnow through options and opportunities, and then you have to do the mechanical aspects — training, equipping, authorizing, professionally conducting and obfuscating attribution as much as you can.”
Going back to the 1990s, suspected Iranian spies, or sometimes their Hezbollah proxies, were observed surveilling U.S. diplomatic facilities, cultural centers and military installations in Europe (including France and Germany), Asia, the Middle East and Latin America, said former intelligence officials. Iranian operatives were observed photographing U.S. government buildings, clocking the movements of people in and out of facilities, identifying entrances and exits, and tracking buildings’ security procedures, said a former U.S. intelligence official.
These casings “aren’t being performed on a lark,” said another former official; they have to be approved at a senior level.
In the past, a few instances of close surveillance of CIA officials by Hezbollah operatives has been of acute concern, said one former intelligence official. “Sometimes you ask the local intelligence service to grab them and have a conversation, but sometimes you need to pull the [CIA] person out of country because of an abundance of caution,” said this former official.
In one case in Europe in the 1990s, said this former intelligence official, a U.S. official with diplomatic status was evacuated over concerns about being closely surveilled by an Iranian intelligence official.
Iran’s need for targeting information to be current — in the event of overt conflict — means Tehran’s intelligence services must continuously collect update information, says another former senior official. “Whenever we saw an Iranian doing surveillance or casing, there’s always a degree of ‘hit the panic button,’” recalls this person. “Discussions would go around whole gamut. There was never any clear satisfactory answer of it. The intel community fell on the side of the Iranian’s performing planning — and not imminent action.”
In Latin America, some of the potential preparatory terrorist activity appeared to emanate from the Triple Frontier — where Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina meet — said multiple former officials. Iranian intelligence and Hezbollah operatives were focused on casing Jewish facilities, and potentially individuals, in Brazil and Argentina, said one intelligence official with knowledge of Iranian activities in the region around the turn of the millennium.
Worries about U.S.-directed Iranian terrorism or assassination attempts have waxed and waned with the overall tenor of U.S.-Iranian relations, say former officials — that is, they rise or fall with the likelihood of an actual shooting war.
By this measure, the period around 2010, as Tehran pursued its nuclear program amid Western sanctions, was particularly fraught. The United States and Israel ramped up intelligence operations against the regime, which included deployment of the Stuxnet virus to sabotage the equipment Iran used to produce uranium for nuclear weapons. Israel also began carrying out a public campaign of assassinations aimed at Iran’s nuclear scientists.
Around this time, concerns about Iranian supported terrorist attacks rose to the highest levels of the U.S. government, particularly in the Triple Frontier. “The Argentinian intel folks had determined Iranian influence there, trying to create proxy groups that would eventually destabilize these Latin American countries,” recalled a former senior official. “What it brought home was that this is not just someone playing a Middle East game — it was a worldwide game in terms of influence.”
U.S. officials again believed that Jewish and Israeli institutions in the region were under potential threat, and the CIA worked with Israeli intelligence to monitor Iranian activities in this area, said this person. “What it created for us was a sense that while we were dealing with a lot of ad hoc groups — al-Qaida, Boko Haram, ISIS — now we had a nation-state that was basically following a similar pattern,” said the same former senior official. “You put those two together and you could really have a serious problem.”
Iran’s counterintelligence capabilities were also becoming notably more sophisticated, particularly after Iran compromised the CIA’s secret communications system — likely in concert with China — used by the agency to contact its agents abroad. As Iran ramped up its intelligence operations, it focused on the U.S. and Israel’s disruption of the country’s secret nuclear weapons program, according to the same former senior U.S. intelligence official. The Iranians realized if they didn’t push back against the covert campaign to prevent their nuclearization, “they were going to keep being knocked down the hill,” said the former official.
What precipitated the Iranians’ decision, after Witt’s defection, to target U.S. intelligence officers for potential assassinations is unclear, says another former official. It may, in fact, derive from Iran’s conflation of U.S. and Israeli activities. (Israel’s past use of American identities during undercover intelligence operations, as revealed during the investigation into the 2010 Israeli assassination of a senior Hamas official in Dubai, probably deepened this belief, said Wise.)
There’s no doubt that the United States and Israel maintain a close intelligence partnership, “sharing a great deal of key information” on Iran, says the former senior official. And during this key 2010 period, Israel had had much more success in developing spies within Iran itself. “We weren’t as broad in network as the Israelis,” recalls this person. “We relied on the Mossad.”
The Israeli Embassy in Washington did not respond to specific questions from Yahoo News, but instead sent a general statement accusing Iran of operating “a global terror network, which in recent years has perpetrated terror attacks in some two dozen countries on five continents.”
“In light of this threat, intelligence cooperation between Israel and the United States is vital to the security of both countries and to the world,” a spokesperson for the Israeli Embassy wrote in a statement. “Today, that cooperation is stronger, broader and deeper than ever.”
From Tehran’s perspective, the targeting of U.S. and Israeli intelligence officers in Europe could be justified as a response to Israel’s assassination of Iranian nuclear scientists, notes another former U.S. official. “It’s hard to imagine anything more blatant than bombing people on bikes,” said the former official, referencing to the killing of scientists in Iran by motorcycle-riding assassins between 2010 and 2012 — “it wasn’t like they died in their sleep.”
There are other escalation-related dangers. During the Obama administration, recalls the same person, U.S. officials believed that Iran would blame the United States for an Israeli military assault on its nuclear facilities, precipitating just the type of domestic terror campaign that has long concerned U.S. officials. “We have less control over Hezbollah sleeper cells than Israel does on their own turf,” notes this former official.
Still, U.S. officials believed that the Iranians would refrain from undertaking assassinations on U.S. soil, given the possibility of an overwhelming American response. Then, in 2011, U.S. officials uncovered a plot, authored by Iran’s elite Quds Force, to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to Washington in a local restaurant. The consensus within the U.S. intelligence community that Iran’s potential terror planning was solely for wartime contingencies “was shaken after the Saudi ambassador plot,” recalls one former senior official.
After 2013, this consensus, already shaky, was shattered, says another former U.S. intelligence official. During this time, U.S. officials identified multiple instances — fewer than five, says this person — where Iranian operatives appeared to be targeting U.S. and Israeli intelligence officials engaged in activities against Iran for possible assassinations. Critical identifying information about the threatened U.S. intelligence officials — all of whom worked for the Department of Defense — was provided by Monica Witt, the former air force officer who defected to Iran in 2013, says this person. “These people were not identifiable without her help,” the former official said.
Though the plots were prevented before the Iranians were potentially able to carry them out, Iran’s actions went far beyond the mere assembling of dossiers for potential future attacks, said this person. “These were cases where people had been assigned; plane tickets were purchased; weapons caches were in place. Plans were being activated. It had moved long past the written description.”
This was a “five alarm fire,” said this former intelligence official — highly anomalous and inconsonant with the behaviors of other hostile intelligence services like those of Russia or China. “The targeting of American intelligence officers was unique,” the former official said. “When this was happening the reaction was not, ‘Oh these things happen.’ There was shock, awe and surprise. The thought was, ‘The battlefield changes in an instant if this is true.’”
In one unnerving case after Witt’s defection, a U.S. intelligence official in Europe had to be evacuated in the middle of the night with their family because of Iranian operatives casing their home, said this person.
A second former official confirmed the evacuation of a U.S. intelligence official in Europe during this period because of unexpected Iranian interest. How the Iranians had managed to identify this person led to intense scrutiny by U.S. officials — and rising consensus that the Iranians had recruited a U.S. government source, said this former official. There was a great deal of CIA-FBI finger-pointing over this issue, recalls this person.
Around this same time, senior CIA officials also warned employees about an aggressive Iranian effort to recruit CIA officers, said a third former official. It was, once again, unclear how the Iranians had identified these undercover CIA officials, again precipitating fears about moles within the U.S. government, or defectors, recalls this official.
The identification of Witt as the defector sent shockwaves through the intelligence community. Her access to highly classified technical collection programs was “immense,” says the first former official, and while U.S. officials had an “inkling” about who Witt was meeting with, and where these meetings were occurring — that she was being debriefed, and who her spy handlers were within Iran — U.S. officials were fundamentally in the dark on what she was sharing with Iranian intelligence.
Then came the potential assassinations, and the realization about Witt’s role in them, says this person. This, in concert with overarching concerns about Witt’s disclosures, prompted U.S. officials to reorient a sensitive national-level technical collection program — allowing for pinpoint geolocation — to try to track her down within Iran. Although approval was eventually given, “there were some conversations with uncomfortable [U.S. government] lawyers” about altering this program, which was strictly regulated, toward hunting down Witt, said this person, because she is a U.S. citizen. The request to alter this program went all the way up to senior Obama-era National Security Council officials, said this former official.
It’s unclear whether this effort to locate Witt was successful.
Iran’s targeting of American officials for potential assassination would cross a fundamental red line, according to those familiar with U.S. intelligence operations. Aside from legal prohibitions, there are important pragmatic reasons for not assassinating intelligence officials from rival countries. In Yemen, recalls another former U.S. intelligence official, the Pentagon was tracking a senior Quds Force commander who was previously stationed in Iraq and whom Pentagon officials considered responsible for the deaths of many U.S. soldiers there. U.S military officials floated the idea of assassinating the commander, but ultimately declined to take action, partially over fears of retaliatory targeting of U.S. intelligence personnel in Afghanistan and Iraq, says this person. It was seen as akin to killing a senior CIA official — a line best not crossed.
While much of the focus over the past decade has been on Iranian intelligence operations in Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, there’s evidence that Tehran’s focus has also moved more recently to the United States, such as with Doostdar, the suspected intelligence operative who allegedly cased targets in Chicago. In another domestic case, federal prosecutors in New York in 2017 indicted Ali Kourani, a dual U.S.-Lebanese citizen, who, according to the FBI, admitted to being a member of Hezbollah’s “black ops” unit working on behalf of “the Iranians.”
Kourani, according to a summary of his interview with federal law enforcement, admitted to surveilling New York City airports, and he cased FBI, Secret Service and National Guard offices in the city, and researched ways to set up secret weapons caches. He also identified Jewish businessmen in the New York area who were current or former members of the Israeli military.
The question, however, is what are the Iranians preparing for?
Some officials point to the ratcheting up of pressure by the White House and its resident hard-liners. In May 2018, the Trump administration withdrew from the Iran nuclear deal. Administration figures seem to have concluded that Iran has continued to covertly pursue nuclear weapons, despite the U.S. intelligence community’s official assessments to the contrary, say former officials.
It’s “a blatant attempt to politicize the intelligence community,” said Wise, the former DIA deputy director. The Trump administration appears to be looking for a pretext for war, says another former senior official.
The Trump administration seems oblivious to the potential Iranian response to U.S. military action, warn multiple former officials. And yet Iran has been telegraphing its intentions — including its capacity and willingness to use terror — if a war takes place. “We are in such a precarious situation, and people don’t realize it,” says one former senior intelligence official.
“The Trump administration approach is, ‘Oh shit, we’ll drop a few bombs and that’ll take care of it, says another former senior official. “Something precipitous could happen.”

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Paedo Britain – Why do so many UK women support child abuse? :/ (Ex-nursery manager who viewed child rape… Police Scotland launches fresh campaign to combat rising online child abuse)

“It’s horrifying… potentially thousands… TENS OF THEOUSANDS OF UK WOMEN ARE OPENLY SUPPORTING THE SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN!!! 
How the fuck is this society still functioning? Dozens of pro paedophile women drive past my house every day sticking their fingers up.
My dad spent 30 years locking up paedophiles, my mum investigated paedophile rings (solicitors, doctors etc.)… and everyone knows I went full on in trying to combat the problem (MI5)… and we get stalked for doing so! 
WOW!

Every day there’s another horror story in the UK news about child sexual abuse…
(ANOTHER female nursery worker arrested for viewing child rape! A nursery manager this time)

And why does it seem to be only NCA that are actually trying to combat this?

nca
BOOM! My niggas at the NCA! 😉

Comment: Ex-nursery manager Alison Whateley who viewed child rape could not have been jailed

Alison Whateley, 44, worked at Bushy Tails nursery in Teddington

A community order handed to former nursery manager Alison Whateley, who admitted viewing videos of children being raped, has caused widespread outrage – with good reason.
The idea that someone who actively sought out such vile videos of the most horrendous child abuse is allowed to walk free does not sit well, but it’s not the fault of the judge.

Crimes have sentencing guidelines and if judges deviate from them, they are open to appeal, and where they are deemed to be excessive, they are likely to be downgraded.
What made this case even more difficult for Judge Peter Moss is that there are no guidelines for this specific offence, because it falls into a legal grey area. She did not download the footage or even click on it to open it, so she did not possess or ‘make’ indecent images. She did not share the footage so could not be convicted of distributing indecent images.

The 44-year-old from Guildford Road, Farnham, who was a manager at Bushy Tails nursery in Teddington – there is no suggestion any children at that nursery were harmed – entered a chat room app called Zoom and watched videos put in front of her by somebody else, commenting on them.
Her participation in such a group, and obvious enjoyment of it, is abhorrent and unforgivable. But the judge’s hands were tied by the fact any attempt to charge her with a more serious offence would likely have resulted in her being acquitted and walking away without any sort of conviction.

Sentencing guidelines for making or distributing indecent images suggest a maximum jail term of 10 years, while possessing them can carry a maximum of five years in prison.

But because she participated in watching the footage, without storing, downloading or distributing it, she had to be sentenced for “initiating, encouraging or assisting the commission of an offence”. This offence is vague as it covers somebody encouraging or assisting with any offence, and does not relate specifically to child abuse.
So they add “namely the distribution of indecent images of children” to the end of the offence but only to make it clear that’s what she was “encouraging”. Judge Moss called it an “unusual case”.
So, while the shock and anger at a community order for participating in any way in such a disgusting act is understandable, and warranted, it is not Judge Moss’s fault, and he had little choice. There is the other facet of this that, in the eyes of the justice system – rightly or wrongly – Whateley is someone who can potentially be rehabilitated.

She will be monitored and is now on the sex offenders register, and will never be able to work with children again. Her name and face are plastered over the internet and people now know what she has done. If a community order feels like a soft punishment, its widespread publicity is anything but a let-off.
The details of the case
Alison Whateley, 44, from Farnham, was arrested following an investigation by the National Crime Agency (NCA).
On August 29, 2017 Whateley, using the username ‘xxx’, was in the online conferencing room when category A (the most serious) and category B child sexual abuse was being streamed. She also made comments about the material to other users, saying she found babies “f****** sexy” and asking to see more abuse of young children.
Investigators traced the ‘xxx’ account to Whateley’s home.

She was arrested on September 26, 2017, suspended from work and later dismissed. There was no evidence to suggest any material was made at nurseries Whateley had worked at or that she had been in sexual contact with any children.
After arrest, she was interviewed under caution and admitted using the ‘xxx’ account. She also admitted having a ‘!!!’ account.
NCA investigators found an audio recording in which Whateley was heard admitting to being a paedophile and expressing an interest in abusing very small children. Whateley claimed she had been visiting the conference room for six months to entrap paedophiles.

But she had made no notes, passed no offenders’ details to law enforcement and had also deleted nearly all her phone’s contents. She initially pleaded not guilty but on the eve of her trial at Guildford Crown Court in February 2019 she admitted encouraging the commission of an either way offence.

She was sentenced on Thursday (March 7) to a 30-month community order and a 50-day rehabilitation order. She was put on the sex offenders register and given a five-year sexual harm prevention order.
A reporting restriction, which banned Whateley being named, was lifted on Monday (March 11).
What is a community order?
Community orders are non-custodial sentences that require the offender to do certain things like attend rehab sessions or do community service. The order can include unpaid work in the community, known as Community Payback.
According to the government, community orders can be given if it is the first time someone has committed a crime or if you have a mental health condition that affects your behaviour. The orders can also be given if the court thinks the defendant is more likely to stop committing crime than if they go to prison.

‘Growing threat’
Graham Ellis, NCA operations manager, said: “The sharing of both live and recorded child abuse on web based platforms is a growing threat.
“Behind every image is a child who has been abused or is still being abused and their protection is at the centre of everything we do.”
Alison Cartmell, specialist prosecutor at the Crown Prosecution Service, added: “We work tirelessly with partners such as the NCA to make sure those involved in child abuse of any kind are prosecuted to the full extent of the law.”

Police Scotland launches fresh campaign to combat rising online child abuse

POLICE in Scotland will today launch a new campaign against perpetrators of online child sex abuse, following the release of figures showing nearly 1600 crimes were committed in Scotland in just 10 months.
The figures, recorded by Police Scotland, were taken from between last April and February this year, and are made up of instances when an individual communicated with a child for sexual purposes. Police investigations resulted in the detection of nearly 70% of the offences with the perpetrators arrested and charged.

Of the 1600 crimes, 98 were reports of grooming or attempting to groom children for sexual purposes, 90% of which were detected.
Now police chiefs have warned that anyone who tries to engage with kids for sexual purposes will be caught and have to face the consequences.
The campaign has been developed with the help of Stop It Now! Scotland after research that shows the biggest fear of perpetrators is that their families will find out and they will face public exposure.
“Perpetrators of online child abuse are single minded and target children using messaging apps,” said Assistant Chief Constable Gillian MacDonald, lead for Crime and Protection at Police Scotland.

“This includes crimes of grooming children for sexual purposes, indecently communicating with children and causing children to participate in sexual activity.
“Offenders come from all walks of life, all age groups and are predominantly men. Some may not see children as victims, they may not see themselves as abusers. Most don’t believe they will get caught.”
She said the police use a range of techniques to identify perpetrators and catch the vast majority of those who engage with children for sexual purposes and who groom or attempt to groom.
“They will face the consequences of their actions, their families will find out and they will face public exposure,” she warned.

“Our message to offenders or people who think they might offend is get help. Support is out there and Stop It Now! can provide help and advice if you are in danger of offending, or if you have offended. What you are doing is wrong, you will be caught and you risk losing everything.”
Stuart Allardyce, national manager of Stop It Now! Scotland said their work with people who have committed online offences showed that many knew what they were doing was wrong but didn’t know how to stop. He warned their families would suffer if they were caught.
“This campaign seeks to drive home the message that the online grooming of children and young people is illegal and causes huge harm to the victims,” he said.
“There are no grey areas – whether it is sexual conversations with young people online, an attempt to solicit sexual images from them or trying to meet up. All of these things are illegal.
“Our message is clear – get help whether you are already doing these things, or are having thoughts about it. Stop It Now! Scotland is here to help.”
He added: “The long-lasting hurt caused to the families of offenders is often underestimated. We often work with wives and children of offenders who are devastated by the actions of their loved ones.”
Those calling Stop It Now! Scotland do not need to give names or any personal details.
“You will be treated with respect regardless of any crimes committed. Confidential and anonymous help is only a phone call away,” said Allardyce. The £30,000 #StopItNow campaign will run for four weeks and will include adverts across social media channels, as well as outdoor ads on telephone kiosks.